1. Wooden made hammer just like iron hammer, but longer in size, having with 3-3.5 fit wooden handle, lower wooden log is of 2-2.5 kg.
2. After ploughing villagers use it for breaking big clods on field.
1. Cleaned paddy on an average yields 72 percent rice, 22 percent husk and 6 percent bran.
2. The traditional hand pounding or foot pounding (Dhenki) has now become noncompetitive. The rice hullers, shellers and modern rice mills have gained popularity.
3. Hullers seldom give about 65 percent total yields with 20-30 percent broken besides, it does not give completely cleaned rice.
1. This occur at the time of panicle initation stage.
2. At this time normal grain color changes to brownish white color.
1. Seed treatment with Bavistin (0.2%) or vitavax (0.2%) for 6 hrs.
2. Spary bavistin 0.1 %
1. The hand operated and power operated winnowing fans are commercially available.
2. The paddy threshed by manual beating or by pedal operated paddy thresher is cleaned by using these fans.
3. These winnowing fans consist of frame either made up of wood, angle iron, welded steel or combination of the two along with driving mechanisms namely, sprocket and chain, belt and pulleys and single or double reduction gears.
Traditional winnowing fan:
1. Usually in nursery; chlorotic/ yellow patches at leaf base on both sides of the midrib; restricted root growth and usually main roots turn brown.
1. Use 25kg Znso4/ha before transplanting or sowing at time of land preparation.
2. If crop is infected then use 5 kg Znso4 + 25 kg lime in 600-700 litre water per hectare.
1. The Special quality of mahua (Madhuca indica) wood tends to use it intensively for this purpose.
2. It is two side axel rollers, which is fitted in grooves of plank connecting the bullocks.
3. Mahua is heavy in weight and also available near village.
1. Biasi is a set of cultural operations traditionally practiced in direct seeded rice.
2. In this operation, the field is ploughed by an indigenous plow in standing water 30–50 d after emergence.
3. Bullock plowing often followed planking and chalai (thinning and distribution) operations.
4. This system is very popular in the eastern region of India. The effectiveness of the system greatly affects yield. Often, operation is delayed because there is less rain to flood the field.
1. Good packaging provides not only convenient handling in transportation and storage but also attracts consumers to pay more. Packaging is essential to avoid spoilage and to prolong the quality.
2. Packaging of paddy/rice is also important for long-term storage to fulfill the demand of old rice in the market, particularly in case of Basmati and non-parboiled rice. Paddy/rice, if kept in open, quality may be adversely affected.
Causal organism:- ustilago noidea virus
1. False smut start as light green ball of spores covered by a thin silver colored skin. The balls erupt exposing the orange spores.
2. As time passes spores turn dark green to black. Damage from smuts occur due to contamination of other grains by spores during harvest, miiling causing quality problems and discoloration during paraboiling and cooking.
1. Excessive nitrogen increases diseases.
2. Use resistant varities
1. Improved bins: Different organisations developed and designed improved storage structures for scientific storage of foodgrains, which are moisture resistant and rodent-proof.
2. Brick-build godowns: These are made by brick-walls with cemented flooring for storing paddy/rice in bulk and bags.
Causal organism: Thanatephorus cucumeris
1. initial infection occur on the stem near the water lime and appear as water soaked oval lesion which often dries and turns tan.
2. All the plant parts are susceptible to infection except roots. Sheath tends to develop in circular areas in the field and cause what are called bird nests.
3. It starts as white bean like structures that turn dark brown to black
Nature Of Damage of Armyworm:
1. Damage is caused by larvae feeding on leaves from edges, leaving only the midrib and stems.
2. In severe infestation, entire seed beds and fields are destroyed and appears r as if it has been grazed by animals.
Control of Armyworm:
Local name :
Symptoms for damage of Rice Hispa:
1. Damage is caused by both grubs and adults. Grubs feed by tunneling lower and upper epidermis, resulting in regular translucent white patches.
2. Adults scrap the surface of leaf blade often leaving only the lower epidermis.
3. Damaged plant parts appear as white streaks parallel to mid rib.
Control of Rice Hispa:
Causal organism: Helminthosporium oryzae
1. Many dark brown elliptical spots on leaves; infects coleoptiles of seedling and causes blightining; infected kernel shriveled.
1. Seed treatment before sowing with carbandazim (2.5g/kg).
2. Treatment with fungicide like mancozeb 0.25% or Adinophos 0.1%.
Local name :
Nature and symptoms for damage of leaf folder:
1. Larvae infest the young leaves.
2. They feed on leaf tissue and as they become older, fold the leaf to form a tube.
3. During severe infestation, leaf margins dry completely.
Control of Leaf Folder
Causal organism- Magnoporthe Salvinii
1. Disease infect rice after tillering.
2. The initial infection occurs on the stem in the leaf sheath and towards maturity penetrating in to the culm often causing lodging.
3. Below sheath small dark brown spots formed which have no shape. Because of this diseases panicle do not emerges
4. If the panicle emerges grains do not fill and cause yield loss.
Local name: Bhura mahu
Nature of Damage of BPH and WBPH :
1. Nymphs and adults damage the plants by sucking the sap and by plugging xylem and phloem with their feeding.
2. Sheath and pieces of tissues are pushed into these vessels during exploratory feeding and affects early stage of plant growth, reduces height and general vigour.
Symptom of Bacterial leaf blight
1. ‘Kresk’ occurs in early stage (plant withers and dries up), in later stage blightining starts from the tip of the leaves to the base, straw turned yellow, partially filled grains.
1. Use balanced fertilizer dose.
2. Drain out excess of water.
3. Use resistant varities like Sawa masuri, Bambleshwari.
Nature of Damage of Whorl maggot :
1. Yellow spots, transparent streaks and pin holes are the other symptoms found on leaves. Neonate maggots feed on the unopened central leaves.
2. Under severe infestation many broken or bent leaves willappear resulting in poor growth and reduced tillering.
Management of Whorl maggot:
• Application of carbofuron granules in the nursery 5-7 days before pulling of seedlings will protect the crop until 20DAT.
Local name: Tanachedak
Nature of Damage of Stem Borer :
1. Caterpillars bore into stem and feed internally causing death of central shoot"dead hearts" in vegetative stage and "white earhead" at milky stage respectively.