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Meghalaya

25
Jan

Farming systems of West Garo Hills of Meghalaya

Goswami (1996) did an economic appraisal of indigenous hill farming systems (FS) in West Garo hills district of Meghalaya to identify the existing fanning systems and their transition flow to modern system of agriculture. Four types of indigenous farming systems were reported to have existed in West Garo Hill district of Meghalaya such as traditional FS, marginally modern FS, semi-modern FS and modern FS. 

In the valley lands between the hills, rice is predominantly grown. Here the agriculture system followed is like that of plains. Jhum mixture is the predominant crop component occupying 29.50% of the gross cropped area. It is grown in the hill slopes by almost all the farm households. Next to jhum mixture, autumn rice occupies a larger scale of 19.94% of gross cropped area followed by winter rice,jhum rice and spring rice: In the valley and terraced lands, rice is the principal crop as it accounts for 52.88% (all rices) of the total cropped area. Major portion of the gross cropped area (55.62%) is in jhum land, followed by valley land (26.16%) and terraced land (26.16%). Of the total production, major share is from jhum (38.64%), followed by terrace (32.42%) and valley land (28.94%) indicating the dominance of jhum in the agriculture of the district.

File Courtesy: 
A.K. Mohanty, Chandan Kapoor, R. Gopi, S. N. Meera and R. K. Avasthe, ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, published in Rice Knowledge Management for Food and Nutritional Security.
5
Aug

Garden spurge

1. Scientific Name: Euphorbia hirta

2. Local Name: Gakhorotibon

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Fimbristylis

1. Scientific Name: Fimbristylis miliacea

2. Local Name: Hiyalnajia

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Thatch grass

1. Scientific Name: Imperata cylindrica

2. Local Name : Olubo

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Sensitive plant

1. Scientific Name : Mimosa pudica

2. Local Name : Nilajibon

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Ragweed

1. Scientific Name : Parthenium hysterophorus

2. Local Name : Pakheniyam

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Ground cherry

1. Scientific Name: Physalis minima

2. Local Name : Kopalphota

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Gripeweed

1. Scientific Name : Phyllanthus niruri

2. Local Name : Bonamolakhi

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Smart weed

1. Scientific Name : Ploygonum chinensis

2. Local Name : Pothoruwa bihaljoni

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Tiger Grass

1. Scientific Name : Saccharum spontaneum

2. Local Name : Kohiwa bon

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Black nightshade

1. Scientific Name : Solanum nigrum

2. Local Name : Latkosu

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Heart leaf cocklebar

1. Scientific Name : Xanthium strumarium

2. Local Name : Agora

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Water hyacinth

1. Scientific Name : Eichhornia crassipes

2. Local Name : Panimataka

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Ground chesnut

1. Scientific Name : Eleocharis dulcis

2. Local Name : Sasuwa

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Barnyard grass

1. Scientific Name : Echinochloa crusgalli

2. Local Name : Binaybon

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
5
Aug

Swamp morningglory

1. Scientific Name : Ipomoea aquatica

2. Local Name : Kolomu

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Harvesting for Irrigated Rice

1. Harvest when more than 95% plants are mature. It may be needed to provide protection against birds at harvesting stage.

2. Leave the border rows and select the seeds from middle rows for storage.

3. Store seeds after proper sun drying in a dry place. Label seeds properly.

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
5
Aug

Weed control and interculture for Irrigated Rice

 

1. Adopt hand weeding 2-3 times at 20 days interval starting from 20 days after planting. This is done before the top dressing of urea.

2.Wherever weed problem is acute, selectively apply selective herbicides after the seed germination and before emergence of the weeds.

3.Apply Butachlor @ 1. 5-2.0 kg/ha at the time of transplanting (pre-emergence) followed by hand weeding at 25-30 days after transplanting.

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
5
Aug

Water purselane

1. Scientific Name : Ludwegia parviflora

2. Local Name : Bonjolokia

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Google Image
5
Aug

Water management for Irrigated Rice

 

1. Proper water management facilitates good tillering in the crop, increases efficiency of nitrogen use by plants and helps to reduce weed population.

2. Maintain 2-5 cm water throughout the growing season. Drain out water before topdressing with nitrogen fertilizer and let in water 24 hours later.

3.Depending on the soil type, drain out water 15 – 20 days after 50% flowering. This ensures fast ripening of the grains.

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Chaitanya, DRR
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