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17
Apr

DRR Dhan 45 - The first zinc enriched rice variety of India

 

Technology 4:

DRR Dhan 45 - The first zinc enriched rice variety of India 

Technology Profile 

Utilizationof biofortified rice is a promising strategy helping the poor to meet their daily micronutrient requirement.

DRR Dhan 45, India’s first zinc - rich and high yielding variety was developed at ICAR-IIRR and released in India during 2015.

Developed from the cross IR 73707-45-3-2-3/ IR 77080-B-34-3, it is a biofortified semi-dwarf medium duration culture (~130 days) with non-lodging plant type and long slender grains recommended for cultivation in irrigated ecosystem yielding 5-6 t/ha.

It recorded 22 ppm Zinc in polished seed which is higher than the checks (Kalanamak: 20.4ppm) and Chittimuthyalu: 20.7 ppm).

It possessed good cooking quality traits namely intermediate amylose content (21.1%), intermediate ASV(3.5) and Gel Consistency (54 mm). 

Context 

Although rice is a major food crop, it is a poor source of essential micronutrients such as Zinc leading to hidden hunger (malnutrition).

Globally zinc deficiency is a major health problem affecting  nearly 17.3% of the population. It causes

stunting, reduced immunity, poor cognitive development and mortality among consumers.

Hence the genetic enhancement of rice with increased levels of Zn is a cost-effective strategy in combating  malnutrition.

The concerted efforts made for developing nutritious rice varieties at ICAR-IIRR during 2004

consequently led in the development of  DRR Dhan 45 (IET 23832), a  high yielding Zn rich variety (22ppm)  during 2015.

Empirical Evidences

•DRR Dhan 45 was notified at national level with 5-6 t/ha yield potential and average zinc content of 22 ppm in polished rice.

•Multilocation evaluation testing during 2013-14 in AICRP- biofortification trials showed its

superior performance in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh wherein it has

out yielded the popular yield checks namely Samba Mahsuri and IR 64 by a average yield margin

of 37.1% and 17.2% respectively.

•In Tamil Nadu, IET 23832 surpassed the Samba Mahsuri and IR 64 by a yield margin of 70.2% and

60.3% respectively.

• In Karnataka, it gave 47.8% and 24.5% more yield than Samba Mahsuri and IR 64 respectively.

•Similarly, IET 23832 outyielded Samba Mahsuri and IR 64 by a yield margin of 8.3% and 15.5%

respectively in Andhra Pradesh

•DRR Dhan 45  is  a  proof  of  concept  for  Biofortification  and  can  address  the  hidden  hunger 

or mineral malnutrition, thus targeting  nutritional security of the nation.

 

Practical utility/Scalability

 

• In India people depend mostly on polished rice based foods as daily diet which is generally

deficient in Zinc. Poor people can’t afford to buy supplementary foods as well as zinc fortified

processed foods to have adequate supply of Zn.

•Diet involving biofortified rice helps in meeting daily requirement of Zn (7–13 mg per day for

adults) and thereby improving the  health of human beings.

• Also consumption of biofortified rice cuts down the expenses otherwise incurred on

supplementation and fortified foods of Zn particularly among the poor people. Hence consumption

of DRR Dhan 45 is alternative to mitigate  Zn malnutrition.

 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr.  V. Ravindra Babu and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
17
Apr

DRR DHAN 44 –High yielding Rice Variety for water limiting areas


Technology 3:
DRR DHAN 44 –High yielding Rice Variety for water limiting areas


Technology Profile 

Rice variety DRR Dhan 44 (IET 22081) is released in the year 2014 for cultivation under irrigated conditions for the states of Uttarakhand, Haryana and Bihar. 

It is an early duration; drought tolerant, high yielding and long slender grain variety suited both for transplanted and direct seeded aerobic cultivation with good weed competitive ability. 

Context 

The drought tolerance in rice is very complex, controlled by quantitative traits and is the very reason for poor progress of breeding under drought prone rainfed and low land areas. DRR Dhan 44 was developed by Indian Institute of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, under the IRRI-India project on Stress Tolerant Rice for Asia and South Africa (STRASA). Though DRR Dhan 44 is released for cultivation under irrigated conditions, it is characterized by very high yield under limited water conditions.   

Empirical Evidences 

•At different locations across the country, it had shown yield advantage over national or regional or local checks viz., of 25.4 over Sahbhagidhan and 31.1% over Narendra 97 on overall basis, 9.8% over Pant Dhan 11 in Uttrakhand, 31.97% over Govind in Haryana, 34.72% over both Prabhat and Rajendra Bhagvati in Bihar. 

•It has desirable grain quality characteristics and several other desirable traits. DRR Dhan 44 is resistant blast, moderate resistant to other diseases and pests such as bacterial leaf blight and plant hoppers. 

• It has tolerance to drought at reproductive stage and also has high nutrient use efficiency. 

Practical Utility/ Scalability 

DRR Dhan 44 is characterized by very high yield under limited water conditions. Recently farmers harvested 8 tonnes/ha in Telangana state during Rabi 2015. It is doing exceedingly well under dry direct seeded conditions (sprinkler irrigation) with minimal inputs. 

Success story of Nandaram Farmer –DRR Dhan 44 cultivation with sprinkler irrigation- Kharif 2015                                                                                                                                                                 

Progressive farmer Mr Gopala Reddy of Nandaram village in Mahaboobnagar District of Telangana state cultivated DRR Dhan 44 in one acre of land. Actually, his land was not amenable for rice cultivation and the area was facing acute water shortage during that period. Mr Gopala Reddy had used limited resources for DRR Dhan 44 cultivation and practiced alternate wetting and drying with sprinkler irrigation. He had harvested 2.5 tonnes of DRR Dhan 44 and was extremely happy with DRR Dhan 44 culitvaiton. From his experience, he encourages many other farmers to cultivate DRR Dhan 44. Though released for irrigated ecology, DRR Dhan is well suited for areas with scarce water resources. 

Performance of DRR Dhan 44 in FLDs and Head to Head Trials during Kharif 2016

Field level demonstrations were conducted during Kharif 2016 to demonstrate the yield advantage of DRR Dhan 44 over mega variety MTU 1010 in Buchiguda village of Farooknagar Mandal of Mehaboob Nagar district of Telangana state. A total of nine farmers (G. Venkat Reddy, G. Narender Reddy, R Mallesh Goud, P Venkat Reddy, K Venkataiah Goud, K Venkatesh, Lakshminarayana Reddy, A Domodhar Reddy and G Narsimha Reddy) cultivated DRR dhan in a total of five hectares. On an average, the yield advantage of DRR Dhan 44 over MTU 1010 was 11.67%. Farmers were satisfied with its cultivation, its high yield and quality and are continuing with its cultivation during Kharif 2017. 

 In Head to Head trial conducted at Chinna solipet of Shabad Mandal in Rangareddy district of Telangana state, Mr Harikrishna Reddy harvested DRR Dhan 44 with a yield advantage of 25% over popular local variety MTU 1010. 

Widespread cultivation of DRR Dhan 44 

The demand for breeder seed of DRR Dhan 44 is gradually increasing since its release. Widespread cultivation of DRR Dhan 44 is seen as evident from seven times increase in the breeder seed indent from 2015-16 to 2017-18 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr.  T Ram and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
20
Apr

Multi variety green manuring for sodic soil management

Technology 14:

Multi variety green manuring for sodic soil management

Green manure crops Control field GM added crop Demonstration plot

Technology Profile
Organic sources are known to improve the soil conditions and green manuring was a recommended practice for problematic soils. The multi variety green manuring technique, popularly known as Dhabolkarmethod  for  management of problematic soils, was tested in the selected farmers’ fieldsby providing  multi variety green manure seed consisting of 15-20 types of seeds including cereals, pulses, oil seeds, green manures and spices @ 20 kg/ac. Green manure crops were grown for 45 days and incorporated into the soil before puddlingand then rice was  transplanted.

Context
Sodicity/alkalinity is a major soil problem in many districts of Telangana and many farmers from different villages of Rangareddy and Nalgonda districts  expressed  the problem of  soil sodicity  that is causing yield reduction to an extent of 50-60% than normal yields. Hence, it was felt that management of these sodic soils would be ideal in these villages. Consequently, a field survey was done and most problematic soils were selected for demonstration of the technology under FLDs for four years in four villages of two districts of Telangana.

Empirical Evidences

Field testing results

  • The difference between  demonstration plot and control plot were very clear where control plot showed nutritional deficiencies due to alkalinity problem  and treated plots were green showing good crop growth.
  • Higher yields were recorded in sodic soils due to improvement in plant population, crop stand, crop growth, more number of tillers and panicles
  • The yield improvement ranged from 16.1 to 31% due to improved practice over control
  • The soil data indicated different degrees of improvement in soil properties where the was reduction in pH and improvement in organic carbon and other nutrients to a greater extent in some fields and there was a little improvement in other fields in a two year period.

Practical Utility/ Scalability

  • By using this simple technology of growing diverse crops as green manures the soil physical, fertility and biological properties will be improved and increases the yield of rice crop.
  • It converts problem soils into fertile soils.
  • It improves soil health as well as plant health and increases the farmer’s income by increasing the yield.
  • Government can encourage this practice in problem soil areas by providing subsidy for the seed material.

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. K. Surekha and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
20
Apr

Aerobic system of Rice cultivation

Technology 13: 

Aerobic system of  Rice cultivation 

DRRDhan44 under aerobic system- 54% water saving – Nandaram, Vikarabad Dist. Telangana

Broadcasting Aerobic Rice – Machilipatnam Guntur Dist, Sprinkler System, Ananthapur Dist. Andhra Pradesh

Technology Profile 

Aerobic rice is a viable option where the shortage of water does not allow the growing of lowland rice. It is growing rice like an upland crop, such as wheat, on non-flooded aerobic soils without stress, thereby eliminating continuous seepage and percolation and greatly reducing evaporation. 

Brief description of the technology 

  • The cultivation package developed, recommended, demonstrated and implemented by the farmers included 
  • High yielding drought tolerant short duration varieties e.g., DRRDhan42, DRRDhan 44 and DRRDhan46 @20-30kg/ha seed rate
  • Well ploughed, and no or very little clods/clumps in field is required like any dry land crops.
  • Sowing by dibbling or drilling at 2-3 cm depth, at a spacing of 20-25 X5cm for HYVs and 25-30X10  cm for Hybrids.
  • Pre-sowing herbicide application of Glyphophate @2.5 to 5 l/ha in the main field 15 days before field preparation. Application of pendimethalin @ /ha within 3 days of sowing and penoxsulam+cyhalotofop butyl @2.5 l/ha. at  20-30 DAS (2-4 leaf stage of weeds)
  • 50%Nitrogen should be applied at 10-12 days after rice emergence, 25% at maximum vegetative stage (45 DAS), 25% N, 25% K at 50% flowering stage is recommended. If Iron deficiency is noticed, spraying of ferrous sulphate @2.0% ferrous sulphate 3 to 4 times at weekly interval.
  • Upon noticing visible symptoms of hairline cracks on soil surface, irrigation is needed to maintain soil at field capacity. Maintenance of saturated condition at critical stages of Active Tillering,Panicle Initiation, Flowering to grain filling stage is essential.
  • Need based application of plant protection chemicals

Context

Need: This can increase cropping intensity and income by growing short duration aerobic rice in kharif and safflower/sunflower in early rabi and vegetables in summer season where water scarcity, labor scarcity, high labor wages and poor economic status of farmers is a problem.
 

Existing practices: When water is limited farmers donot grow rice though they are in need of the staple Crop. Majority of the rice farmers practice flooding irrigation. 

Areas: Wasting of precious water with wrong notion that flooding is compulsory for rice. In majority of the rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhrapradesh. 

Empirical Evidences

Demonstration yields and incomes 

  • Water saving of 30 to 56% compared to conventional flooded irrigation. Aerobic rice requires only  470 to 644 mm water
  • By reduced cost of cultivation with Opportunity costs with fertilizers, pesticides
  • By way of increasing cropping intensity, crop productivity and income

Practical utility/Scalability 

Demonstrations were successful and other rice farmers in the Demo villages are asking for provision of technology and inputs.

Some Progressive farmers are practicing aerobic rice cultivation successfully even with drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. B. Sreedevi and team

 

 

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
20
Apr

Rice-maize cropping system for more productivity and profitability

Technology 12: 

Rice-maize cropping system for more productivity and profitability 

Technology Profile 

Rice–maize (R–M) systems are rapidly expanding in South Asia, India, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh due to higher yield and profit potential from rabi (winter) maize, its reduced water requirement compared to rice–rice systems, and increasing demand from poultry and fish feed industries. 

Context 

Need – Increase productivity and more profitability 

Existing practices- Majority of the rice farmers practice rice–rice, rice-pulse, rice-oilseed cultivation  which consumes more water and less profitable 

Potential losses: Crop roductivity loss upto 31.4% and gross profit upto ₹ 18638 / ha 

Areas: In majority of the rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. 

Empirical Evidences 

Demonstration yields and incomes 
System productivity increased by 30% and net profit of ₹ 10000 / ha 

Cropping system REY (t/ha) Gross return (₹/ha)
Rice-rice 7.8  45,124
Rice-wheat 8.4  48,882
Rice-maize  10.2 59,110
Rice-pulse  8.5  49,152
Rice-oilseed  7.0  40,472


Practical utility/Scalability

  • Rice-maize area can be expanded upto 0.53 mha in India
  • Net profitability can be increased to 530 crore for 0.53 mha (₹ 10000 / ha)
  • Already the system is followed in 0.53 mha in India and some patches of rice-rice (4.7 mha), rice-rice-rice (0.04 mha), rice-wheat (9.2 mha)and rice-pulses (3.5 mha) area can be diversified to rice-maize system

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. M.D. Tuti and team

 

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

Integrated Weed Management (IWM) in Rice

Technology 11: 

Integrated Weed Management (IWM) in Rice 

Technology Profile 

The IWM package developed, recommended, demonstrated and implemented by the farmers included 

  • High yielding high zinc medium duration variety DRRDhan 45.
  • Adoption of recommended seed rate of 30kg/ha.
  • Drum seeding under puddle condition/ transplanting.
  • Pre-sowing herbicide application of Glyphophate @2.5 to 5 l/ha in the main field 15 days before field preparation for drum seeder sowing.
  • Application of pyrozosulfuron ethyl @ 200gm/ha within 3 days of sowing.
  • Application of penoxsulam+cyhalotofop butyl @2.5 l/ha.at tillering stage to control second flush of broadspectrum weed flora
  • Top dressing nitrogen only after weeding operation
  • Need based application of plant protection chemicals 

Context 

Need – Due to labor scarcity, high labor wages and  non availability at the critical stages 

Existing practices- Majority of the rice farmers practice manual hand weeding 

Potential losses : Expenditure on  manual hand weeding is nearly double the  expenditure on IWM 

Areas: In majority of the rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhrapradesh 

Empirical Evidences 

Demonstration yields and incomes 

  • By reduced cost of cultivation with Opportunity costs with better weed management
  • By way of  increasing income by improving productivity

Table 4:  IWM in Farmers field Demonstration  for increasing income 

Location

Expenditure Rs/ha

Yield t/ha

Additional Benefit ( Rs/ha)

IWM

Farmers practice

IWM

Farmers practice

Puppalaguda

Rangareddy Dist, Telangana State.

4,342

8,975

6.96

6.13

14,834

Nagapur & Rajanpet,

Medak Dist. Telangana State.

5,837

10,875

6.68

6.10

12,563

Amrad, Madanpalle Thanda & Banapoor, Nizamabad Dist. Telangana State.

6,600

11,575

6.82

5.98

16,396

Practical utility/Scalability

  • Demonstrations were successful and other rice farmers in the Demo villages are asking for provision of technology and inputs. 
  • Progressive rice farmers are practicing IWM successfully 
  • The farmers who understood the benefits of the technology are not going back to manual hand weeding. 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. B. Sreedevi and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

Alternate wetting and drying method of Irrigation for rice to enhance the productivity and water use efficiency

Technology 10: 

Alternate wetting and drying method of Irrigation for rice to enhance the productivity and water use efficiency

Technology Profile

Irrigated rice occupies 50% area and contributes nearly 70% to total rice production of the country with an average yield of 3.1 t/ha.  India’s food security largely depends on irrigated rice which consumes nearly 50- 60% of our finite fresh water resources. Flooded rice requires 900-2250 mm of water (average 1500 mm) depending on the water management, soil and climatic factors. 

  • Rice requires about 3000-4000 lts for producing 1 kg of grain
  • AWD is also called ‘intermittent irrigation’ or ‘controlled irrigation’
  • Alternate flooding Compared with the traditional continuous flooding system, AWD using lowland rice cultivars can reduce water input by 15-30% without any yield loss
  • It can be practiced with Bouman’s tube . 

Context 

Need – Water saving is must in rice as it consumes > 50% of irrigation water of crops Existing practices- Flooding the field and inundation of 5-10 cm in the feild requires more than 1500mm ha  

Potential losses: Water loss, Nutrient losses, soilpollution, reduced productivity 

Areas: In all rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhrapradesh especially borewell irrigated area where controlled irrigation is practiced 

Empirical Evidences

Demonstration yields and incomes 

  • AWD is also called ‘intermittent irrigation’ or ‘controlled irrigation’
  • Alternate flooding Compared with the traditional continuous flooding system, AWD using lowland rice cultivars can reduce water input by 15-30% without yield loss 

Practical utility/Scalability 

  • Saving in 30% of water input
  • Enhancing the water productivity
  • Reduced incidence of pests and diseases
  • Increase in productivity
  • Very easy to scale up
  • More than 500 farmers adopted it and found promising 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. R.M. Kumar and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

Modified Leaf Colour Chart for Enhancing the Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Reducing the Cost of Cultivation

Technology 9: 

Modified Leaf Colour Chart for Enhancing the Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Reducing the Cost of Cultivation 


Technology Profile 

Rice yields are decelerating or stagnating with indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, especially nitrogenous one due to its easy availability and cheaper cost causing environmental pollution and more incidences of pests and diseases. The tendency of increased application of N fertilizer is very common with our farmers, as they attribute the crop greenness and growth due to N application to yields of the rice crop.  Blanket   or package fertilizer recommendations   over large areas are not efficient because of indegenous nutrient supply varies among rice fields.  

  • Hence there is a need to synchronize N fertilizer application to plant needs to optimize nutrient use and minimize environmental pollution
  • The customized LCC developed at IIRR, Hyderabad on the basis of spectral evaluation of leaves of hundreds of varieties under different N levels can be used for real time N management by using the N application schedules (20-30 kg N/ha depending on the crop stage).

 Context 

Need: Balanced N application, timely application, as per the need of the crop Existing practices: General broadcasting and application of higher nitrogen (2-3 times more than  recommended Potential losses: Nutrient losses, soil pollution, enhancing the pests and diseases Areas: In all rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhrapradesh 

Empirical Evidences 

Demonstration yields and incomes 

Increased N fertilizer efficiency at high yield levels is possible in hybrids and high-yielding varieties using a chlorophyll meter and LCC to monitor leaf N status and guide fertilize N timing in irrigated rice. These methods not only reduced N requirement (25%) but also improved  congruence  of N supply  and crop demand than fixed timing of N application treatment 

Practical utility/Scalability 

  • Saving in cost of nitrogen by 25%
  • Improved soil health due to less Urea
  • Reduced incidence of pests and diseases
  • Most suited for irrigated rice system

Scalability: 

  • Already most of the State governments are supplying to Farming community
  • Very easy to scale up
  • Simple devise and practicable

Approximately 2 lakh farmers are using in the country in different stattes

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. R.M. Kumar and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

SRI method for resource conservation, profitability and sustainable rice production

Technology 8:

SRI method for resource conservation, profitability and sustainable rice production 



Technology Profile 

The future of country’s rice production will depend heavily on developing and adopting strategies and practices that use irrigation water efficiently at the farm level.  System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is one such method which has a potential to produce more rice with less water.  Until 1990, the impression was that rice yields better only under flooded conditions. Hence, Water saving technologies in rice is the need of the hour and SRI method which had been tested for last one decade at IIRR and AICRIP programme is one technology which can save resources to more than 30%. 

Context 

Need: Increase productivity, reduced cost of cultivation, enhancing the soil productivity Existing  practices- Majority of the rice farmers practice flooded rice cultivation which consumes 1200 mm ha of water  Potential losses: Water losses, productivity and profitability to an extent of 30% 

Areas: In majority of the rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhrapradesh especially suited for Borewell 46% (DRR, 2005-2014) 

Empirical Evidences 

Demonstration yields and incomes 

SRI spaces rice plants more widely and does not depend on continuous flooding of rice fields. It uses lesser seed, chemical inputs and promotes soil biotic activities in and around the root zone, due to liberal applications of compost and weeding with a rotating hoe that aerates the soil. These changed practices with lower inputs lead to enhanced yields with considerable savings of inputs especially the water which is becoming scarce over the years. Grain yield increase by 10-25% and water use decreased by 29%. 

Practical utility/Scalability 

  1. Saving in seed cost to the extent of 60%
  2. Improved soil health due to use of orgnaics
  3. Reduced incidence of pests and diseases
  4. Eco-friendly method of rice cultivation
  5. Most suited for hybrid rice cultivation and quality seed production
  6. Already the Practice is followed in 53 countries across the world
  7. A million farmers in India are practicing the principles of SRI method

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. R.M. Kumar and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

DNA marker-based assay for rapid and reliable estimation of genetic purity of seeds of Rice Hybrids and Parental lines

Technology 7:

DNA marker-based assay for rapid and reliable estimation of genetic purity  of seeds of Rice Hybrids and Parental lines

 

Technology Profile 

Seed quality control in terms of maintenance of genetic purity is a vital component of any hybrid crop seed industry. Traditionally, seed purity is ascertained through a morphological assay called ‘Grow-out Test (GOT)’, which has several limitations 

ICAR-IIRR, Hyderabad has developed a DNA marker-based assay for rapid and reliable estimation of purity of seeds of rice hybrids and parental lines. 

Hybrid seed purity is assessed on single seed/seedling basis using a parental polymorphic SSR marker, which is specific for a particular rice hybrid or using a functional marker, named RMS-PPR9-2, which targets the candidate gene for Rf4, the major fertility restoring gene. 

For assessing genetic purity of seeds of WA-CMS lines (i.e. the female parent used for hybrid seed production), a functional marker, named RMS-5-WA352, which is specific for the candidate gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility is deployed to accurately discriminate WA-CMS lines from the maintainer lines. 

Context 

Most of the private hybrid rice seed industry is based in and around Hyderabad and seed production is generally done during Rabi season. Even a 1% contamination in seeds of rice hybrids can reduce the crop yields by 100 kg/ha. Similarly, 1% impurity in seeds of WA-CMS line can result in significantly higher level of impurities in hybrid seed production (i.e. > 5%).  Due to this, seed genetic purity and seed quality control are vital for success of hybrid rice seed industry. 

As GOT takes one full growing season and the private companies cannot wait for the results of GOT, a rapid and reliable assay for assessing seed purity is imperative. In this context, the DNA marker based assay developed by ICAR-IIRR can help the hybrid seed industry to accurately identify impure seedlots quickly. 

The DNA marker based assay for hybrids and WA-CMS lines can be deployed immediately after the harvest of the seeds in Rabi season and the analysis is based on single seed/seedling. Results can be made available within a fortnight of submission and decision for marketing the pure seeds can be taken before the commencement of the Kharif season. 

Empirical Evidences 

Blind tests and commercial analysis of seed-lots 

Through Blind tests carried out in collaboration with Hybrid rice section and also with samples provide by private seed companies, the assay was able to accurately identify contaminants in seed-lots of rice hybrids and WA-CMS lines. 

From 2007, ICAR-IIRR is providing the DNA-marker based assay for assessment of impurities in seedlots of rice Hybrids and parental lines on a commercial scale to several public and private sector seed companies. So far, we have successfully completed analysis for more than 1200 seed-lots and the results were deemed to be accurate by the clients. We are also working on using some of the high-throughput tools for analysis of bulked samples, thus saving cost and time. 

Practical Utility/ Scalability 

The assay is presently offered on a single seed/seedling basis and results can be made available within 10-15 days of submission of samples. We are presently working towards utilizing some of the high throughput tools for estimation of purity on bulked sample basis. Once the assay is standardized, results can be provided within 3-4 days of submission of samples. 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. Raman Meenakshi Sundaram and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

Hybrid Rice Seed Production

Technology 6:

Hybrid Rice Seed Production

Technology Profile 

Hybrid rice technology is playing a pivotal role in increasing the rice production and productivity in India and is one of the components of ‘National Food security Mission’ which was launched in 2007 with an aim to enhance the national annual rice production 

With good management, yield advantage of 1.0 – 1.5 t/ha can be obtained by cultivation of hybrids as compared to the high yielding varieties under the same set of growing conditions. 

So far, ninety seven hybrids have been released for commercial cultivation in the country. It’s predominantly cultivated in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and in 2017, the area under hybrid rice exceeded three m.ha.

Hybrid rice seed production is economically lucrative and this institute has perfected the technology over the years and many progressive seed growers recorded more than three tons of hybrid seed yield per hectare. 

Context 

Availability of quality seed at an affordable price is crucial for spread of hybrid rice technology in the country. Hybrid rice seed production technology is different and more complex than the inbred rice seed production. It has been observed that farmers in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana sates have been taking up hybrid rice seed production on a large scale.Presently, about 85% of the hybrid seed requirement in the country is provided by Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states. It is mostly concentrated in Karimnagar and Warangal districts of Telangana and is also spreading to other districts such as Nizamabad, Khammam and Kurnool (Andhra Pradesh).The major players in the large scale hybrid rice seed production are private seed companies and farmers take up the activity with a kind of understanding with these companies. 

Empirical Evidences: 

Even though the total costs incurred on hybrid rice seed production were more, both the gross and net returns are higher. The gross return per hectare is expected to be around Rs. 2 lakhs and from this the farmer realizes a net profit of Rs. 0.75-1 Lakh per hectare. This technology also has potential to generate additional employment viz., around 60-80 persondays/ha, particularly for the landless rural women. Thus, during the current year 2017, the additional employment being generated, is estimated to be around 25,00,000 person-days. Expected additional employment generation during 2022 due to hybrid rice seed production will be around 30,00,000 person-days, thus providing ample employment opportunities in the rural areas. 

Practical Utility/ Scalability

There is going to be huge demand for hybrid rice seed in the coming years, as the area under hybrid rice is targeted to be increased from the present 3 m.ha. to around 8-10 m.ha in the coming 5-10 years, in the country and most of the seed production is going to happen in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana only. From the present level of 40000 tonnes of hybrid rice seed per year, it needs to be upscaled to around 80000-100000 tonnes in the coming 5-10 years, indicating a huge potential for hybrid rice seed production in the region. 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. A S Hari Prasad and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

DRR Dhan 49 – High Zinc and high yielding rice variety

Technology 5:

DRR Dhan 49 – High Zinc and high yielding rice variety

Technology Profile

DRR Dhan 49 is a high yielding variety with high Zinc content. This variety was developed from the cross RP Bio226*1/CSR27 following backcross and pedigree selection breeding method. This variety contains very high Zinc content of 25.2 ppm which is higher than checks like Kalanamak and Chittimuthyalu. It also recorded superior grain yield than national check IR 64. In addition to superior grain yield and high Zinc, it also possesses strong culm there by having tolerance to lodging. It contains erect and wide flag leaf which improves it photosynthetic ability. It is also having the desirable grain type of Medium slender which is mostly accepted and consumed in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

Context

In the past 40 years, agricultural research for developing countries has focused on increased cereal production. Recently, there has been a shift: Agriculture must now not only produce more calories to reduce hunger, but also more nutrient-rich food to reduce hidden hunger.  One in three people in the world suffer from hidden hunger, caused by a lack of minerals (Iron and Zinc) and vitamins in their diets, which leads to negative health consequences. Biofortification provides a feasible means of reaching malnourished rural populations who may have limited access to diverse diets, supplements, and commercially fortified foods. To achieve nutritional security, DRR Dhan 49, a high yielding, high Zn rice variety (Zn content 25 ppm) was developed by crossing RP Bio226 with CSR27. 

Empirical Evidences 

Multilocation testing through AICRIP 

In AICRIP testing for three years (2014-2016), DRR Dhan 49 showed high Zinc content of 25.2ppm which was higher than IR 64 (16.9ppm), BPT 5204 (16.9ppm), Kalanamak (18.7ppm) and Chittumuthyalu (23ppm).

During 2015 and 2016 under AICRIP, the variety recorded superior grain yield than national check IR 64 (4%), Kalanamak (55%) and Chittumuthyalu (22%).

It was found promising for the states of Kerala, Maharashtra and Gujarat with three years of testing under AICRIP.

It is also having the desirable grain type of Medium slender which is mostly accepted and consumed in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

The entry has shown resistance to Bacterial leaf blight disease, moderately tolerant to RTD, Sheath rot, neck blast and brown spot. 

Practical Utility/ Scalability

Rice is a staple food in India and if we use biofortified rice variety like DRR Dhan 49 with high Zinc content, it will reach the poor, under nourished segment of the society. It will be very useful for pregnant women and children to overcome malnutrition.
Since it is high yielding and having Medium slender grain type, tolerant to lodging, it is easily acceptable by farmers of Southern states Telangana, Andhra pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.
If this variety is multiplied in large scale and final polished rice is distributed through Public distribution system, it will reach the poor and malnourished people easily.
If tag of High Zinc content is added to the label, the finished product will have higher price in supermarkets, hence farmers income will also increase..

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. T Ram and team

 

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
17
Apr

DRR DHAN 42 [IR 64 (Drt 1)] - First Drought Tolerant MAS derived Rice Variety

 
Technology 2

DRR DHAN 42 [IR 64 (Drt 1)] - First Drought Tolerant MAS derived Rice  Variety

 

Technology Profile

DRR Dhan 42 (IR 64 Drt1) is a first drought tolerant rice variety released in 2014, developed using Marker Assisted Selection. It produces high yield under drought stress conditions at reproductive and grain filling stages. DRR Dhan 42 is a near-isogenic line of IR 64 with two QTLs introgressed for yield under stress qDTY 2.2 and qDTY 4.1. The QTLs for yield under drought stress were introgressed from Aday Sel by repeated backcrossing followed by intermating under IRRI-India STRASA programme. DRR Dhan 42 is characterized by high yield than IR 64 under drought situations and on par yield with IR 64 under normal conditions.
Context
It is estimated that by 2025, 15-20 million hectares of irrigated rice will suffer from some degree of water scarcity. In this context, it is important to develop and promote strategies to help the farmers to adapt for improving water management and productivity. Developing drought tolerant varieties, using the concept of introgressing yield QTLs under drought in high yielding back ground without reducing yield under normal condition is the ideal strategy to maximise rice yields in drought prone areas. This concept was used in the development of DRR Dhan 42. The QTLs for yield under drought stress identified at IRRI and elsewhere were used at IIRR and introgressed qDTY2.2+qDTY4.1 QTLs under drought in the back ground of mega variety IR 64 grown under rainfed mid land using two back cross followed by two selected intermating in association with IRRI, Philippines.

Practical Utility/ Scalability

• DRR Dhan 42 produces high yield under drought stress conditions at reproductive and grain filling stages.                  

• Improving yield of varieties along with drought tolerance is very difficult. Hence, instead of developing drought tolerant varieties, the concept of introgressing yield QTLs under drought inhigh yielding back ground without reducing yield under normal condition is the ideal strategy to maximise rice yields in drought prone areas. 

• Mr Harikrishna Reddy of Shabad Mandal, Rangareddy District of Telangana State cultivated DRR Dhan 42 and IR 64 each in one acre of land during Kharif 2016. DRR Dhan 42 expressed yield advantage of 19.5% over IR 64.

Technology / Concept developed by Dr.  T Ram and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
17
Apr

Improved Samba Mahsuri: a high yielding, bacterial blight resistant, fine-grain type, low glycemic index rice variety

Technology 1

Improved Samba Mahsuri: a high yielding, bacterial blight resistant, fine-grain type, low glycemic index rice variety



Technology Profile

Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) is a bacterial blight resistant rice variety, jointly developed and releasedby ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research (ICAR-IIRR), Hyderabad and CSIR-Centre for Cellular andMolecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad through the novel tool of molecular marker-assisted selection. ISM is a fine and medium-slender grains variety having excellent cooking and eating quality with yieldpotential of 5.5-6 t/ha. It is highly resistance against bacterial blight disease, as it possesses threemajor resistance genes, Xa21, xa13 and xa5 incorporated using molecular marker based technology.Recently, it has also been confirmed to be a low glycemic index (50.9) rice.It is one of the first biotechnology derived product in the country and has been registered with Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Authority.

Context

Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) can be cultivated in those rice growing areas where bacterial blight disease is endemic and also in the areas where fine-grained rice varieties like Samba Mahsuri, HMT Sona and PKV-HMT are grown.

Under bacterial blight infection, ISM gives more yield than the susceptible varieties like Samba Mahsuri HMT sona, PKV HMT etc. 

Bacterial blight is a serious production constraint in Nizamabad, Karimnagar and Khammam districts of Telangana state and Kurnool, East Godavari, West Godavari, Guntur and Krishna Districts of Andhra Pradesh. Farmer’s in bacterial blight endemic areas of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh can certainly get additional returns by cultivating ISM.

Considering the fact that many areas of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh States are increasingly becoming susceptible to bacterial blight disease, and also considering the increasing demand for fine-grain type rice varieties with low GI values, ISM can certainly give additional returns to farmers of both the states.
Empirical Evidences

Field testing results

Through Front-line demonstrations and mini-kit trails, Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) reported an increased yield of 25-40 % in bacterial blight endemic areas of Telangana State and Andhra Pradesh, while in uninfected fields, ISM has been observed to show yield levels similar to its parental variety, Samba Mahsuri. Additionally Most importantly, ISM commands the same premium market price like Samba Mahsuri and hence it is highly preferred by farmers in many parts of the country and also in Telangana State and Andhra Pradesh.

Demonstration yields and incomes:

A socio-economic impact assessment study carried out by MANAGE, Hyderabad has revealed that the trait value of bacterial blight resistance, which represents the value that farmers have obtained by cultivating ISM instead of Samba Mahsuri, amounts to Rs. 240 crore. This represents the estimated reduction in loss that was prevented due to the adoption of ISM owing to its bacterial blight resistance (Reddy, 2017, Economic and political weekly 39: 17-20). Most importantly Improved Samba Mahsuri fetches premium price like Samba Mahsuri and other elite fine-grain type rice varieties and hence the variety is increasingly getting popular in bacterial blight endemic areas throughout the country, especially in those areas, where fine-grained varieties are prefer   

Practical Utility/ Scalability

It is estimated that > 2 Mha in the country is highly prone to bacterial blight disease and in most of these areas, fine-grain varieties like Samba Mahsuri, HMT Sona, Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) etc. are being preferred by farmers. Considering the fact that Improved Samba Mahsuri has the same high yield, premium grain quality like Samba Mahsuri and has additional benefits of high level of bacterial blight resistance and low GI value, it can be expected that its area can increase from the present level of ~1,50,000 ha to about 1.5 Mha, thus benefitting the farmers in terms of getting increased yield under bacterial blight incidence and better market price due to its premium grain quality and low GI value. ISM has been licensed to two seed companies, M/s Sri Biotech Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad and M/s Metahelix Life Sciences, Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore. Due to its low GI value, two firms, M/s Good Brands for a Health Life. New Delhi and M/s Gajanan Industries, Nizamabad have signed a licensing agreement for marketing rice grains of ISM. Due to its low GI and high level of resistance to bacterial blight, the area under ISM can be expected to increase significantly in the near future.

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. Raman Meenakshi Sundaram and team

 

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
19
Nov

Harvesting & Storage

IX. Harvesting & storage 

• Harvesting the crop should be done at the right time. Reaping too early or too late affects yield and seed quality. Timely harvest and threshing will ensure good grain quality, high market value, and consumer acceptance.
• The field should be drained 1 week prior to harvesting.
• Harvesting should be done when at least 75% of the grains are matured. If the crop is harvested without proper maturity it leads to loss of viability of grains.
• The harvested material should be dried in the field for 2-3 days.
• The grain should be free from iner t material after threshing and winnowing. The winnowed grains should be sun dried until the moisture content reaches less than 13%.
• Both over drying and under drying will lead to breakage of the grain during processing. High moister content during storage leads to loss of viability due to increased grain respiration and attack of storage insects and pests. Storing paddy
• Paddy seed is sun dried for 2-3 days continuously and then stored in gunny bags on indigenously made 4-5 feet stand to prevent pest infestation.
• Paddy seed is stored in small containers with bamboo called as ‘butta’ (in Telugu). The container is filled with paddy seed and covered with straw and then closed with cow dung paste.
• Seed for consumption purpose are stored in big size storage structure called ‘Gadhi’ with a capacity of 100-150 kunchas (300-450 kgs) of paddy seed.
• The grains should be stored in a place which is free from storage pests.
• They should not be stored in areas with less moisture content.
• The storage structure should not have perforations or holes as it helps the pests to invade. The storage place should have good aeration.
• Control of storage pests like moth and weevil infestation in paddy should be done .For every 50 kg of grain storage, 200 gram salt is placed. In a bag of 100 kg paddy, 200gram of salt is added after filling 50 kg and the remaining 50 kg of grain is filled by addition of 200 gram salt for every 50 kgs grain to control the moth and weevil infestation in paddy.

19
Nov

Pest & Disease Management

 VIII. Pest & disease management

 

Effective pest & disease management is required as it helps in producing better quality grains and better yields. Major Pests of Rice in Andhra Pradesh are


1. Stemborer

 

2. Gallmidge

 

3. Leaf folder

 

4. Hispa

 

5. Leaf mite

 

6. BPH/WBPH

 

7. Panicle mite

 Major Diseases of Rice in Andhra Pradesh are;

 

1. Sheath blight

 

2. Blast

 

3. BLB

 

4. Stem rot

 

5. Red stripe

 

6. Sheath rot

 

7. False smut
 




Pest control during panicle and booting stage

PESTS

CROP  STAGE

CHEMICAL CONTROL

BPH/ WBPH


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray acephate @ or monocrotophos @ 2.2 ml or ethofenprox @ 2.0 ml or fenobucarb @ 2.0 ml or imidacloprid @ 0.25 ml or thiamethoxam @ or Buprofuzin 1.6ml per litre of water.

Stem borer


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Car tap hydrochloride 50 WP or acephate or profenophos 2.0 ml /litre of water (or) apply car taphydrochloride 4G @ 8 kg/acre when the adult moths/egg masses @ one/ sq.m are noticed in the field.

Leaf folder


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray car taphydrochloride or acephate or profenophos 2.0 ml /litre of water

Panicle mite


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray profenophos 2.0 ml or dicofol 5.0 ml/litre of water

BPH/ WBPH


Post flowering


Spray acephate @ or monocrotophos @ 2.2 ml or ethofenprox @ 2.0 ml or fenobucarb @ 2.0 ml or imidacloprid @ 0.25 ml or thiamethoxam @ or Buprofuzin 1.6ml per litre of water

Cut worm


Post flowering


dichlorvos @  1.0 ml + endosulfan @  2.0 ml (or) dichlorovos 1.0 ml +

chlorpyriphos 2.5 ml/litre of water


Disease management

 

Disease

 

Time of application

 

Fungicide

 

Dose

No. of applications &

time interval

 

Sheath blight

 

At   the  initiation of  the  disease. Normally around  45  days  after transplanting in kharif and 30 days after transplanting in rabi


 

Hexaconazole 5EC Validamycin 3L Propiconazole25  EC


 

@ 2ml/l

@ 2ml/l

@ 1ml/l


 

 sprays   at   15-day interval

 

Blast

a) Leaf blast

 

At the initiation of the disease under favourable weather conditions


 

Tricyclazole 75 WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@ 1.5 ml/l


 

2 to 3 sprays depending on the severity  & spread of the disease at 15 days interval

 

b) Neck blast

 

i) Under disease favourable weather conditions just before panicle emergence stage


 

Tricyclazole 75 WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@ 1.5 ml/l


 

One spray

 

ii) On appearance of the disease

 

Tricyclazole 75WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@1.5 ml/l


 

One spray


 

 

BLB

 

No chemical available. Management is mainly through rationalization of nitrogenous fer tilizer application


 

---


 

---


 

---

 

Stem rot


 

At  the appearance of the disease (Normally from maximum tillering to crop maturity stage)


 

Validamycin 3L / Hexaconazole 5EC / Propiconazole 25 EC / Carbendazim 50 WP/ Benomyl 50 WP


 

@ 2ml/l

@ 1ml

@ 2ml/l

@ 1g/l

@ 1 g/l


 

2 to 4 sprays at 10-15 days interval depending how much early the disease has been noticed

 




 

Red stripe

 

At  the appearance of the disease from advanced boot leaf  to crop maturity stage

 

Carbendazim 50 WP

 

@ 1g/l

 

One spray

 

Sheath rot

 

At the appearance of the disease or at panicle emergence stage


 

Carbendazim 50WP


 

@ 1g/l


 

One spray

 

False smut


 

At flowering  stage


 

Propiconazole 25 EC/ Copper       oxycloride

50WP /  Carbendazim

50WP


 

1.0ml/l

2.0g/l

1.0g/l


 

One     spray      during evening hours


 

19
Nov

Weed Management

Weed Management 

Three types of weeds are found in rice fields in Andhra Pradesh i)   Grasses : Monocots, two ranked leaves

ii)   Sedges : Similar to grasses but have 3 ranked and triangular solid stems. They frequently have modified rhizomes adopted for storage and for propagation. Sedges belong to the family cyperaceae, a large family of monocotyledonous plants distinguished chiefly by having active solid stems and 3 ranked stem leaves.
 

GRASSES SEDGES BROADLEAVED WEEDS
Echinochloa colonum,Echinochloa crussgelli, cynodon sps panicum sps Cyperus rotundus, Cyperus iria, Fimbristylis miliaceae Eclipta alba, Commelina bengalensis, Ammonia baccifera
Control of weeds
• Flooded condition of rice field reduces weed intensity.
• Transplanting of rice seedlings in weed free fields.
• Hand weeding is done whenever necessary with an interval of 20-25 days to remove the perennnial and large weeds.
• Mechanical weeding is done with the help of cono weeder or roto weeder.This is useful in the removal of small weeds like 2-3 leaved weeds.

Chemical control of weeds
• Pyrazosulfuron ethyl 10 % -250g / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting. Or
• Pretilachlor 50 EC - 1.5 lit / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting.Or
• Butachlor 5 % - 30 kg / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting.
• Bensulfuron methyl + Pretilachlor (6.69) - 10 Kg / ha, mixed with 30 kg of sand or 500 lit of water and applied 3 - 5 days after transplanting.

Biological Weed Control
• Natural or biological weed control agents are those of biological origin, which suppress or kill the weeds without significantly affecting the desirable plants. They include insects, animals, fish (like Chinese carp), snails, birds (like duck), microbes (fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, etc.), their toxic products, and plants (parasite plants, competing plants) or their products.
• Animals, like pigs feed on the tubers of purple nutsedge (C. rotundus) in the off-season. In control of Ludwigia parviflora in rice fields, steel blue beetle (Haltica cyaamea) and larvae of Bactra verutana were found to bore into shoots of Cyperus rotundus.
• Plant pathogen, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sp. Aeschynomene was found effective for control of Aeschynomene virginica and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides sp. Jussiaceae for the control of Ludwigia decurrens.
• Other Pathogens that have been shown potential as biological control agents for controlling weeds in rice, include Drechslera monoceras for the control of Echinochloa crusgalli, Epicoccosorus nematosporus for the control of Echinochloa kuroguwa. Biocontrol of E. kuroguwai has become possible by means of a plant pathogen, Epicoccosorus nematosporus, and of Scirpus planculmis by a pathogen Alternaria sp.

Related Terms: EISWeed Management
19
Nov

Water Management

Water management 

  • A thin film of water (2-3 cm) should be maintained at the time of weedicide application and should not be drained up to one week. Maintain water level at 5 cm depth during first seven days after planting and thereafter up to completion of tillering at 2 cm depth. 
  • Maintain water level at 5 cm depth from panicle initiation to grain maturity. Drain the water before fer tilizer application. Mid season drying discourages unproductive tillers. Drain the field one week before harvest.Drain the field and aerate whenever Sulphide injury occurs. Ensure drainage in deltaic alluvial soils (East and West Godavari and Nellore districts).
Water requirements of rice at different growth stages
S.No. Growth stage Depth of submergence (cm)
1. At transplanting 2
2.  After transplanting for 3 days (3 DAT)   5
  3. DAT up to max. tillering  2


  4. At max. tillering (in fer tile fields)  NIL


    (in fer tile fields) NIL 5.Max. tillering to PI 2 6.P1 to 21 DA flowering 5
19
Nov

Land Preperation

Land preparation typically involves ploughing, harrowing, and levelling the field to make it suitable  for crop establishment. Plough the field upto 12-15 cm deep so that the weeds and the stubbles get incorporated in the soil and get decomposed. •  Ploughing should be done 3-4 weeks prior to sowing. Draft animals, such as oxen, 2-wheel tractors or 4-wheel tractors can all be used ploughing the land effectively. •  After ploughing, harrowing should be done twice, with one week gap between the two. First harrowing should be done after 1 week of ploughing. The second harrowing should be done across the first harrowing. •  The land should be submerged in 2-5 cm of standing water so that pudding is done and decomposition of organic matter occurs soon. Bunds should be prepared and cleaned thoroughly as the harbour pests and diseases. •  Bunds should be compacted to prevent seepage, and properly maintained at 15 cm high x 20 cm wide to prevent rat burrowing.  The initial soil tillage can also be performed with a rotavator instead of a plough.

19
Nov

Seeds and Varietal Selection

Resistant Variety PESTS/DISEASES/ABIOTIC FACTORS VARIETIES RECOMMENDED Resistant for Diseases For blast Rasi, Samba Mahsuri, NLR 9672, NLR 9674, MTU 7014, NLR 13969, Tikkanna, Pinakini, NLR 28600, IR 20 For leaf blight Improved Samba Mahsuri, IR 36, IR 20 For tungro virus Vikrarmarya, IR 20 Resistant for Pests For Brown Plant Hopper Vajram, Pratibha, Sonasali, Krishnaveni, Chaitanya & Priya For gall midge IR 36, Phalguna, Surekha, Dhanyalakshm, MTU 2400, Divya, Pothana For stem borer Sasyasree Resistant to Abiotic factors Drought tolerant Rasi, MTU 17, Cold tolerant Satya, tella hamsa Saline tolerant Vikas High yielding varieties of Rice: Abhaya, Akshaya, Amara, APHR 1, APHR 2, Apurva, Badava Mahsuri, Bapatla Sannalu, Bhadrakali, Bharani, Bhavapuri Sannalu, Chaitanya, Chandan, Cottondora Sannalu, Deepti, Dhanya Lakshmi, Divya, DRRH 1, Early Samba, Erra Mallelu, Gautami, Godavari, Gutti Akkullu, Hamsa, Hari, Indra, Indur Samba, Jagtial Mahsuri, Jagtial Samba, Jagtial Sannalu, Kakatiya, Karimnagar Samba, Kavya, Kesava, Kotha Bayyahunda, Kothamolagolukulu 74, Krishna Hamsa, Krishnaveni, Lakshmi, Mahendra, Mahsuri Manair Sona, Maruteru Sannalu, Motigold, MTU 9993, Nagarjuna, Nagavali, Nandi, Nandyal Sannalu, Nellore Mahsuri, Orugallu Pardhiva, Penna, Phalguna, Pinakini, Polasa prabha-Mahsuri, Pothana, Prabhat, Prakash, Prasanna, Pratibha, Pushkala, Raja Vadlu, Rajendra, Ramappa, Ravi, Rudrama, Sagar Samba, Saleem, Samba Mahsuri, Satya, Seshu, Shanthi, Shiva, Shravani, Simhapuri, Somasila, Sonal, Sona Mahsuri, Sonasali, Sowbhagya,Sree Kurma,Srikakulam Sannalu, Srinivas, Sriranga, Srisatya, Sugandha Samba, Sumati, Surekha, Surya, Swarna, Swarnamukhi, Swathi, Taramati, Tella Hamsa Tholakari, Tikkana, Vajram, Vamsadhara, Vamshi, Varalu, Vasistha, Vasundhara, Vedagiri, Vibhava, Vijaya Mahsuri, Vijetha, Vikramarya, Warangal. Seed Treatment a. Wet method of Seed treatment Fungicide Concentration Dithane M 45 2.5 g/lt of water Captaf 2.5 g/lt of water. b. Dry method of seed treatment Fungicide Concentration Dithane M 45 2.5 g/kg of seed Captaf 2.5 g/kg of seed. Breaking dormancy For varieties having seed dormancy, treat the seed with 6.3 ml of concentrated Nitric acid dissolved in 1 lit of water. For strong dormant seeds, it is adviced to use 10ml of concentrated Nitric acid per 1ml of water and soak for 24 hr and then allow it for sprouting. Seed Treatment with Azospirillum • Three packets (600 g/ha) of Azospirillum and 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets (1200 g/ha) of Azophos. • In bio-inoculants mixed with sufficient water wherein the seeds are soaked overnight before sowing in the nursery bed. Seed Treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens 1. Treat the seeds with talc based formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g/kg of seed and soak in 1 lit of water overnight. 2. Decant the excess water and allow the seeds to sprout for 24 hrs and then sow. Seed rate 1. Well germinated seeds are to be sown @ 650 g to 1 kg per bed depending on grain size. 2. Requirement of seed for transplanting one hectare of main field is 40 to 45 kg. 50 to 75 kg/ha. for broadcasted crop. 40 to 50 kg/ha. for drilling behind the gorru

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