Best Viewed in Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome

Package of Practices

19
Nov

Harvesting & Storage

IX. Harvesting & storage 

• Harvesting the crop should be done at the right time. Reaping too early or too late affects yield and seed quality. Timely harvest and threshing will ensure good grain quality, high market value, and consumer acceptance.
• The field should be drained 1 week prior to harvesting.
• Harvesting should be done when at least 75% of the grains are matured. If the crop is harvested without proper maturity it leads to loss of viability of grains.
• The harvested material should be dried in the field for 2-3 days.
• The grain should be free from iner t material after threshing and winnowing. The winnowed grains should be sun dried until the moisture content reaches less than 13%.
• Both over drying and under drying will lead to breakage of the grain during processing. High moister content during storage leads to loss of viability due to increased grain respiration and attack of storage insects and pests. Storing paddy
• Paddy seed is sun dried for 2-3 days continuously and then stored in gunny bags on indigenously made 4-5 feet stand to prevent pest infestation.
• Paddy seed is stored in small containers with bamboo called as ‘butta’ (in Telugu). The container is filled with paddy seed and covered with straw and then closed with cow dung paste.
• Seed for consumption purpose are stored in big size storage structure called ‘Gadhi’ with a capacity of 100-150 kunchas (300-450 kgs) of paddy seed.
• The grains should be stored in a place which is free from storage pests.
• They should not be stored in areas with less moisture content.
• The storage structure should not have perforations or holes as it helps the pests to invade. The storage place should have good aeration.
• Control of storage pests like moth and weevil infestation in paddy should be done .For every 50 kg of grain storage, 200 gram salt is placed. In a bag of 100 kg paddy, 200gram of salt is added after filling 50 kg and the remaining 50 kg of grain is filled by addition of 200 gram salt for every 50 kgs grain to control the moth and weevil infestation in paddy.

19
Nov

Pest & Disease Management

 VIII. Pest & disease management

 

Effective pest & disease management is required as it helps in producing better quality grains and better yields. Major Pests of Rice in Andhra Pradesh are


1. Stemborer

 

2. Gallmidge

 

3. Leaf folder

 

4. Hispa

 

5. Leaf mite

 

6. BPH/WBPH

 

7. Panicle mite

 Major Diseases of Rice in Andhra Pradesh are;

 

1. Sheath blight

 

2. Blast

 

3. BLB

 

4. Stem rot

 

5. Red stripe

 

6. Sheath rot

 

7. False smut
 




Pest control during panicle and booting stage

PESTS

CROP  STAGE

CHEMICAL CONTROL

BPH/ WBPH


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray acephate @ or monocrotophos @ 2.2 ml or ethofenprox @ 2.0 ml or fenobucarb @ 2.0 ml or imidacloprid @ 0.25 ml or thiamethoxam @ or Buprofuzin 1.6ml per litre of water.

Stem borer


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Car tap hydrochloride 50 WP or acephate or profenophos 2.0 ml /litre of water (or) apply car taphydrochloride 4G @ 8 kg/acre when the adult moths/egg masses @ one/ sq.m are noticed in the field.

Leaf folder


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray car taphydrochloride or acephate or profenophos 2.0 ml /litre of water

Panicle mite


Panicle initiation to booting stage


Spray profenophos 2.0 ml or dicofol 5.0 ml/litre of water

BPH/ WBPH


Post flowering


Spray acephate @ or monocrotophos @ 2.2 ml or ethofenprox @ 2.0 ml or fenobucarb @ 2.0 ml or imidacloprid @ 0.25 ml or thiamethoxam @ or Buprofuzin 1.6ml per litre of water

Cut worm


Post flowering


dichlorvos @  1.0 ml + endosulfan @  2.0 ml (or) dichlorovos 1.0 ml +

chlorpyriphos 2.5 ml/litre of water


Disease management

 

Disease

 

Time of application

 

Fungicide

 

Dose

No. of applications &

time interval

 

Sheath blight

 

At   the  initiation of  the  disease. Normally around  45  days  after transplanting in kharif and 30 days after transplanting in rabi


 

Hexaconazole 5EC Validamycin 3L Propiconazole25  EC


 

@ 2ml/l

@ 2ml/l

@ 1ml/l


 

 sprays   at   15-day interval

 

Blast

a) Leaf blast

 

At the initiation of the disease under favourable weather conditions


 

Tricyclazole 75 WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@ 1.5 ml/l


 

2 to 3 sprays depending on the severity  & spread of the disease at 15 days interval

 

b) Neck blast

 

i) Under disease favourable weather conditions just before panicle emergence stage


 

Tricyclazole 75 WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@ 1.5 ml/l


 

One spray

 

ii) On appearance of the disease

 

Tricyclazole 75WP/ Isoprothiolane 40 EC


 

@ 0.6g/ml

@1.5 ml/l


 

One spray


 

 

BLB

 

No chemical available. Management is mainly through rationalization of nitrogenous fer tilizer application


 

---


 

---


 

---

 

Stem rot


 

At  the appearance of the disease (Normally from maximum tillering to crop maturity stage)


 

Validamycin 3L / Hexaconazole 5EC / Propiconazole 25 EC / Carbendazim 50 WP/ Benomyl 50 WP


 

@ 2ml/l

@ 1ml

@ 2ml/l

@ 1g/l

@ 1 g/l


 

2 to 4 sprays at 10-15 days interval depending how much early the disease has been noticed

 




 

Red stripe

 

At  the appearance of the disease from advanced boot leaf  to crop maturity stage

 

Carbendazim 50 WP

 

@ 1g/l

 

One spray

 

Sheath rot

 

At the appearance of the disease or at panicle emergence stage


 

Carbendazim 50WP


 

@ 1g/l


 

One spray

 

False smut


 

At flowering  stage


 

Propiconazole 25 EC/ Copper       oxycloride

50WP /  Carbendazim

50WP


 

1.0ml/l

2.0g/l

1.0g/l


 

One     spray      during evening hours


 

19
Nov

Water Management

Water management 

  • A thin film of water (2-3 cm) should be maintained at the time of weedicide application and should not be drained up to one week. Maintain water level at 5 cm depth during first seven days after planting and thereafter up to completion of tillering at 2 cm depth. 
  • Maintain water level at 5 cm depth from panicle initiation to grain maturity. Drain the water before fer tilizer application. Mid season drying discourages unproductive tillers. Drain the field one week before harvest.Drain the field and aerate whenever Sulphide injury occurs. Ensure drainage in deltaic alluvial soils (East and West Godavari and Nellore districts).
Water requirements of rice at different growth stages
S.No. Growth stage Depth of submergence (cm)
1. At transplanting 2
2.  After transplanting for 3 days (3 DAT)   5
  3. DAT up to max. tillering  2


  4. At max. tillering (in fer tile fields)  NIL


    (in fer tile fields) NIL 5.Max. tillering to PI 2 6.P1 to 21 DA flowering 5
19
Nov

Land Preperation

Land preparation typically involves ploughing, harrowing, and levelling the field to make it suitable  for crop establishment. Plough the field upto 12-15 cm deep so that the weeds and the stubbles get incorporated in the soil and get decomposed. •  Ploughing should be done 3-4 weeks prior to sowing. Draft animals, such as oxen, 2-wheel tractors or 4-wheel tractors can all be used ploughing the land effectively. •  After ploughing, harrowing should be done twice, with one week gap between the two. First harrowing should be done after 1 week of ploughing. The second harrowing should be done across the first harrowing. •  The land should be submerged in 2-5 cm of standing water so that pudding is done and decomposition of organic matter occurs soon. Bunds should be prepared and cleaned thoroughly as the harbour pests and diseases. •  Bunds should be compacted to prevent seepage, and properly maintained at 15 cm high x 20 cm wide to prevent rat burrowing.  The initial soil tillage can also be performed with a rotavator instead of a plough.

19
Nov

Seeds and Varietal Selection

Resistant Variety PESTS/DISEASES/ABIOTIC FACTORS VARIETIES RECOMMENDED Resistant for Diseases For blast Rasi, Samba Mahsuri, NLR 9672, NLR 9674, MTU 7014, NLR 13969, Tikkanna, Pinakini, NLR 28600, IR 20 For leaf blight Improved Samba Mahsuri, IR 36, IR 20 For tungro virus Vikrarmarya, IR 20 Resistant for Pests For Brown Plant Hopper Vajram, Pratibha, Sonasali, Krishnaveni, Chaitanya & Priya For gall midge IR 36, Phalguna, Surekha, Dhanyalakshm, MTU 2400, Divya, Pothana For stem borer Sasyasree Resistant to Abiotic factors Drought tolerant Rasi, MTU 17, Cold tolerant Satya, tella hamsa Saline tolerant Vikas High yielding varieties of Rice: Abhaya, Akshaya, Amara, APHR 1, APHR 2, Apurva, Badava Mahsuri, Bapatla Sannalu, Bhadrakali, Bharani, Bhavapuri Sannalu, Chaitanya, Chandan, Cottondora Sannalu, Deepti, Dhanya Lakshmi, Divya, DRRH 1, Early Samba, Erra Mallelu, Gautami, Godavari, Gutti Akkullu, Hamsa, Hari, Indra, Indur Samba, Jagtial Mahsuri, Jagtial Samba, Jagtial Sannalu, Kakatiya, Karimnagar Samba, Kavya, Kesava, Kotha Bayyahunda, Kothamolagolukulu 74, Krishna Hamsa, Krishnaveni, Lakshmi, Mahendra, Mahsuri Manair Sona, Maruteru Sannalu, Motigold, MTU 9993, Nagarjuna, Nagavali, Nandi, Nandyal Sannalu, Nellore Mahsuri, Orugallu Pardhiva, Penna, Phalguna, Pinakini, Polasa prabha-Mahsuri, Pothana, Prabhat, Prakash, Prasanna, Pratibha, Pushkala, Raja Vadlu, Rajendra, Ramappa, Ravi, Rudrama, Sagar Samba, Saleem, Samba Mahsuri, Satya, Seshu, Shanthi, Shiva, Shravani, Simhapuri, Somasila, Sonal, Sona Mahsuri, Sonasali, Sowbhagya,Sree Kurma,Srikakulam Sannalu, Srinivas, Sriranga, Srisatya, Sugandha Samba, Sumati, Surekha, Surya, Swarna, Swarnamukhi, Swathi, Taramati, Tella Hamsa Tholakari, Tikkana, Vajram, Vamsadhara, Vamshi, Varalu, Vasistha, Vasundhara, Vedagiri, Vibhava, Vijaya Mahsuri, Vijetha, Vikramarya, Warangal. Seed Treatment a. Wet method of Seed treatment Fungicide Concentration Dithane M 45 2.5 g/lt of water Captaf 2.5 g/lt of water. b. Dry method of seed treatment Fungicide Concentration Dithane M 45 2.5 g/kg of seed Captaf 2.5 g/kg of seed. Breaking dormancy For varieties having seed dormancy, treat the seed with 6.3 ml of concentrated Nitric acid dissolved in 1 lit of water. For strong dormant seeds, it is adviced to use 10ml of concentrated Nitric acid per 1ml of water and soak for 24 hr and then allow it for sprouting. Seed Treatment with Azospirillum • Three packets (600 g/ha) of Azospirillum and 3 packets (600 g/ha) of Phosphobacteria or 6 packets (1200 g/ha) of Azophos. • In bio-inoculants mixed with sufficient water wherein the seeds are soaked overnight before sowing in the nursery bed. Seed Treatment with Pseudomonas fluorescens 1. Treat the seeds with talc based formulation of Pseudomonas fluorescens 10 g/kg of seed and soak in 1 lit of water overnight. 2. Decant the excess water and allow the seeds to sprout for 24 hrs and then sow. Seed rate 1. Well germinated seeds are to be sown @ 650 g to 1 kg per bed depending on grain size. 2. Requirement of seed for transplanting one hectare of main field is 40 to 45 kg. 50 to 75 kg/ha. for broadcasted crop. 40 to 50 kg/ha. for drilling behind the gorru

19
Nov

Zinc Deficiency

  Symptom

 

Poor stand and establishment, lack of growth and tillering.

• Unhealthy and sickly appearance of crop at 3-4 weeks after transplantion even after receipt of adequate quantities of N,P and K fer tilizers

• Basal mid rib bleaching of 3rd / 4th leaf from top at about 2-4 weeks after transplantion.

• Dark brown rusty spots on the upper par t near the tips of older and mature leaves.

 

Correction

 

 

 Application of  zinc  sulphate  @   20 kg/ac at  puddling is  suggested  as  a prophylactic measure in Zinc deficient endemic soils

•  Deficiency in the standing crop can be corrected by spraying zinc sulphate @

0.2% (2  g/L of water). The spraying should be repeated at 5 days interval depending on the severity of the problem

•  Zinc sulphate solution should not  be mixed with any insecticide / fungicide

17
Nov

Nursery Management

Nursery management • Select well filled high density seed of variety suitable to the location/season. Nursery should be prepared nearer to the main field so as to minimize the shock during transplanting. Utmost care should be taken while preparing the nursery as it is the place where rice seedlings grow and establish. • Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage. Incorporate one tonne compost/FYM per 1000 m2 bed during last ploughing/puddling. • In locations of low temperature regimes (15-25oC) apply double the dose of phosphorus in two or three dressings • Protect against bird damage of seed by netting or taking colour ribbons Tips for Growing Nursery in AP/ Telangana • Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage. • For 5 cents of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen(1kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P O and 1kg Potash. In cold prone 2 5 areas apply double dose • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /cent of soil. • Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage. • If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 2% Ferrous sulphate solution. • Apply Carbofuran 3G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Cloripyriphos 2.0 ml per liter of wate. Apply Carbofuran 3g granules @160g per cent of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery. • For 5 cents of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen (1 kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P2O5 and 1kg Potash. In cold prone areas apply double dose. • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /cent of soil. Seeds should be free from weed seeds • Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage. • Weeding should be done once in 15-20 days as it helps seedlings grow effectively without competition for nutrients, water etc. • If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 2% ferrous sulphate solution. • Apply Carbofuran 3G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Cloripyriphos 2.0 ml per liter of wate. Apply Carbofuran 3g granules @160g per cent of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery. Types of Nurseries 1. Wet-Bed Nursery 2. Dry-Bed Nursery 3. Dapog or Mat nursery 4. Modified Mat Nursery

17
Nov

Nutrient Management

Sufficient amount of nutrients should be supplied to the crop right from transplanting to harvesting as it helps in better crop growth finally giving better yields. Ensure soil fer tility tests are done to your field and apply the nutrients accordingly recommended by the soil health report .
• 3-4 tons of FYM should be applied to the field at the time of ploughing
• Both oversupply and under supply of nutrients to the crop is a threat.
• Oversupply of nutrients results to increased susceptibility of the crop to pests, lodging, etc. 


Nursery


·        

Basal fer tilization with 0.5 kg of `N’; 0.5 kg of `P and 0.5 Kg of ‘K’ per every 100 sq m  is required to get robust seedlings, followed by another 0.5 kg `N’ at 12 days after sowing.

 


·        

Spray ZnSO4 @ 2.0 g /l for correction of Zinc deficiency  if deficiency  is observed.

 


·        

Spray 5-10 g ferrous sulphate (or) ferrous ammonium sulphate with 0.5 to 1.0 gram of citric acid per litre of water to correct Iron deficiency in the nursery crop.

 

Main Field

 


·        

Ameliorate soil acidity in upland soils of East Godavari, west Godavari and khammam districts by appropriate liming.

 


·        

In soils of excessive percolation use urea in 3-4 split dosesor use coated nitrogen fer tilizers such as neem coated urea in kavali area of Nellore and par ts of chittoor.

 


·        

Amelioration of salinity/alkalinity in east Godavari, west Godavari and Nellore districts through green manuring, drainage and appropriate Gypsum application

 


·        

Nitrogen is to be applied in three splits (at basal, at active tillering Stage & at Panicle Initiation stage) P & ‘K’ may  be applied as basal in heavy soils. In case of light soils, ‘K’ may  be applied in two equal splits i.e., at basal and at panicle initiation stage.

 


·        

For late planted conditions apply nitrogen in two splits only (65% basal and 35% at 20 DAT).


 

16
Apr

Spacing depends on several factors

  • With excellent cultural practices, the spacing may be slightly wider, say 20x15 cms but under sub-normal conditions, the spacing should be slightly narrower, say 15x10 cms.
  • Under good management and adequate nitrogen levels, the optimum spacing for varieties should be around 20x10 cms both for kharif and rabi crops.

Adopt proper spacing & ensure adequate plant population

File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
15
Apr

Crop Establishment

  • At 2-5 leaf stage (20-25 days age) , uproot the nursery, trim the tips of seedlings and transplant.
  • Crop establishment is a very important part and hence utmost care is needed to ensure good crop establishment.
  • Synchronous planting should be followed which enables efficient use of irrigation, and reduces
  • incidence of pests.
  • Seedlings should be uproooted from the nursery without damaging the roots and with minimal
  • shock.
  • Make sure that the seedlings are not mixed with weed seedlings.
  • Line transplanting should be followed as it helps in better crop growth and intercultural operations.
  • Generally recommended spacing is 15x10 or 20x10 cm.
  • Proper spacing should be followed between two seedlings to ensure that competition for nutrients
  • will not be there
  • In case of Direct Seeding, sowing should be done after proper puddling and levelling the land.
  • Direct sowing is practiced in areas with lower rainfall or areas with water and labor scarcity.



File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

NURSERY MANAGEMENT

  • Nursery should be prepared nearer to the mainfield so as to minimize the shock during transplanting.
  • Utmost care should be taken while preparing the nursery as it is the place where rice seedlings grow and establish themselves.
  • Prepare the type of nursery based on your resources such as water, type of soil etc eg : Wet bed method is practiced in areas of water abundance and Dry bed method is practiced in areas of less water and where the soil is loamy or clayey.
  • Appropriate seed rate (15-20 kg/ha) should be used based on the variety/ hybrid selected. Farmers use very high seed rate, which is not required and wasteful.
  • For good preparation of your nursery, Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage.
  • Incorporate one tonne compost/FYM per 1000 m2 bed during last ploughing/puddling.
  • Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /100 sq.mt of soil. Make sure the seeds are free from weed seeds. For 200 sq.mt of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen (1kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P2O5 and 1kg Potash. In cold prone areas apply double dose.
  • Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage.
  • Weeding should be done once in 15-20 days as it helps seedlings grow effectively without competition for nutrients, water etc.
  • If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2 g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 20 g / 1 lt. (2%) ferrous sulphate solution.
  • Protect your Nursery against bird damage of seed by netting or taking colour ribbons.
  • Apply Carbofuran 3 G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Chloropyriphos @ 2.0 ml per liter of water. Apply Carbofuran 3 G granules @ 160 g per 40 sq.mt of nursery week days before uprooting the nursery.
  • Seedlings should be uprooted with soil and transplanted immediately so as to minimse the shock to the seedlings. See to it that the time gap between uprooting the seedlings and transplanting is less.
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

“Raise healthy nursery for healthy crop”

The seed rate naturally influences the growth of the seedlings. Thin sowing gives strong and tillered seedlings, whereas thick sowing results in thin and tall seedlings without tillers.

Thin sowing in nurseries is always better and it will produce strong and sturdy seedlings, which can withstand adverse climatic conditions better and produce better yields. Therefore, 40 to 60 grams of seed per square metre should be sown in the nursery beds. About 500 square metre area of nursery is sufficient to transplant one hectare area. In case of late sowing of nursery, the nursery area should be increased to 750-1000 square metre.

File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

Varietal selection

  • Select good quality & high density seed of a variety/ hybrid suitable to the location/season.
  • Varieties should be selected based on the environment and the season in which they are to be grown.
  • The most suitable variety is the one that best meets the farmer and the consumer’s needs. It may not always give the highest yield and the choice will be influenced by availability of water, either from rain or irrigation, soil type, field elevation and whether the rice will be sold or consumed at home.
  • Select varieties resistant to pests and diseases, if the area is prone to endemic diseases/ pests. In case, there are problem soils such as acidic or salinity, varieties which are suitable for specific soils (say saline tolerant varieties) should be selected.
  • Varieties which are already grown in the area and having good yield records should be selected. In case new varieties/ hybrids are to be grown, enquire about their performance in FLDs or on-farm trials.
  • We should go for new varieties initially on trial basis, and if it works out well it can be cultivated in the whole area.

                                                                 



File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
Photo Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

“Plant pure, clean and healthy seeds”

Good quality seed reduces the required seed rate, produces strong healthy seedlings which results in a more uniform crop and higher yields.

Good seed is
  • clean - no stones or soil, weed seed,
  • pure - only seeds from one variety,
  • healthy - full big grains, same color, no cracks or spots

File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

SEEDS AND VARIETAL SELECTION

  • Select good quality seeds which are free from seed borne pests, diseases and weeds.
  • Select seeds which are bold, uniform in size and filled completely.
  • Seeds should be soaked in salt water and remove immature and chaffy seeds. Select only bold seeds and wash thoroughly with clean water for 2 - 3 times and dry under shade.
  • If seeds are farmer grown it should undergo germination test before using for sowing.
  • Select seeds which have good germination rate (> 85%).
  • Get seeds from reliable sources like government agencies or certified private companies, Agricultural universities, KVK’s,Agricultural research stations etc.,
  • Before seeds are sown they should be treated with either
  • fungicides like Carbondazim, Dithane M 45 @ 2.5 g/kg of seed (or) Cartap @ 2.5 g/kg of seed.
  • They can also be treated with bio control agents like Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 gm per kg of seed etc. 
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

“Levelled fields give the best yields”

A well prepared and leveled field gives a uniform,healthy crop that can compete with weeds, uses less water and gives higher yields at a lower cost.
A well prepared field has:
  • Many small soil clods to give good seed ‘soil contact’
  • No weeds
  • Harder layer at 10 cm to stop water percolation
  • Level and smooth surface after puddling
  • Well-constructed bunds
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

Land Preparation

  • Land preparation is done by ploughing, harrowing, and levelling the field to make it suitable for crop establishment.
  • Ploughing should be done 3-4 weeks prior to sowing.
  • Plough your field upto 12-15 cms deep and make sure the weeds and the stubbles get incorporated in the soil and get decomposed. This is necessary to avoid the self sown seeds to grow and become admixtures.
  • Draft animals, such as oxen, 2-wheel tractors or 4-wheel tractors or rotavator can all be used for ploughing the land effectively.
  • Implements used for ploughing are mouldboard plough, disc plough, sub- soiler etc.
  • After ploughing, harrowing the field should be done twice, with one week gap between the two. First harrowing should be done after 1 week of ploughing. The second harrowing should be done across the first harrowing.
  • Implements used for harrowing are Spike tooth harrow, Chain harrow, Disc harrow, Inter-cultivating harrow.
  • Generally rice fields are first flooded with water before tillage. This tillage of flooded soil is referred to as puddling. Puddling is very efficient in clay soils that form deep cracks penetrating the plough pan at about 15 to 20 cm soil depth during the period of soil drying before land preparation.
  • Land should be levelled after ploughing and harrowing is done so as to avoid undulating topography which leads to uneven distribution of water and others. Levelling with laser leveler helps in saving water and ensure uniform crop growth.
  • The land should be submerged in 2-5 cms of standing water so that pudding is done and decomposition of organic matter occurs soon.
  • Bunds should be prepared and cleaned thoroughly to check weed growth as they harbour pests and diseases.
  • Bunds should be compacted to prevent seepage, and properly maintained at 15 cm height x 20 cm width to prevent rat burrowing.
  • Once you complete all these activities, you can now go for transplanting / direct seeding.
  • A fallow period of at least a month from harvest to establishment of the next crop has to be there. This can break the pest cycle and facilitate the success of crop management practices.



File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

Crop Calendar

A crop calendar is a picture of your rice growing season: crop production from the fallow, land preparation, crop establishment and maintenance through to harvest and storage. By using a crop calendar, farm activities are better planned, done at the right time and it is easier to organize labor and obtain inputs such as seed and fertilizer. Better planning will decrease input costs and increase yields.

To create a crop calendar, consider following steps

1. Determine the best date to plant.
2. Determine the time the variety takes from planting to harvest (short duration <120, medium duration 120-140, long duration >140 days plus).
3. Mark on the calendar the date of planting and when each other operation needs to be done. (Ploughing, weeding, fertilizing, harvesting).
“Using a cropping calendar improves the timeliness and reduces
 
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
10
Apr

Six Principles for Rice POPs

Principle 1: Rice Integrated Crop Management (ICM)
Rice growing should be seen as a complete production system and integrated management is essential as each single practice and output interacts with other practices and affects a range of outputs of management that ultimately combine to give the yield, grain quality and environmental sustainability.
 
Principle 2: Inputs, Outputs and Outcomes
Differentiating between practices and the results is very essential. Management inputs (the practices or what the farmer needs to do) are different from the management outputs (the results of these practices or what the farmer is trying to achieve); the management of inputs must achieve optimum level of outputs at all growth stages and management areas to achieve optimum yields and other outcomes such as reduced cost of cultivation.
 
Principle 3: Key Outputs
Identifying the most important factors in package of practices is essential. Some practices / outputs of practices are more important than others in managing the rice crop to achieve improved yield and other outcomes. These factors may vary from place to place.
 
Principle 4: Key Checks
Using the key outputs (such as optimum level of tillers) as targets of management practices and subsequently, as benchmarks for effectively evaluating and checking the outputs at every stage of crop growth.
 
Principle 5: Changing farmers’ practices
Change in farmers’ practices may not occur overnight. A farmer identifying good practices is a precursor to change. The strengths and weaknesses of each of the practices must be identified and recognized by the farmer before these can be changed; and yield, grain quality, and environmental outcomes can be improved.
 
Principle 6: Farmer group discussions
Encourage farmers to discuss about the contents of this book to facilitate collaborative learning with others. Create an environment where every farmer feels that these practices are not thrusted on him, rather these are the cafeteria of practices from which he can choose what is best for him.
 
File Courtesy: 
Shaik N. Meera, R. Mahender Kumar, P. Muthuraman, L.V. Subba Rao and B.C. Viraktamath (2014). A Handbook of Package of Practices for Rice. Directorate of Rice Research, Book No. 80/2014. p.365.
9
May

Pheromone molecule of YSB

Upload File: 
Syndicate content
Copy rights | Disclaimer | RKMP Policies