Best Viewed in Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome

Production Know How

Production Know How
17
Apr

DRR Dhan 45 - The first zinc enriched rice variety of India

 

Technology 4:

DRR Dhan 45 - The first zinc enriched rice variety of India 

Technology Profile 

Utilizationof biofortified rice is a promising strategy helping the poor to meet their daily micronutrient requirement.

DRR Dhan 45, India’s first zinc - rich and high yielding variety was developed at ICAR-IIRR and released in India during 2015.

Developed from the cross IR 73707-45-3-2-3/ IR 77080-B-34-3, it is a biofortified semi-dwarf medium duration culture (~130 days) with non-lodging plant type and long slender grains recommended for cultivation in irrigated ecosystem yielding 5-6 t/ha.

It recorded 22 ppm Zinc in polished seed which is higher than the checks (Kalanamak: 20.4ppm) and Chittimuthyalu: 20.7 ppm).

It possessed good cooking quality traits namely intermediate amylose content (21.1%), intermediate ASV(3.5) and Gel Consistency (54 mm). 

Context 

Although rice is a major food crop, it is a poor source of essential micronutrients such as Zinc leading to hidden hunger (malnutrition).

Globally zinc deficiency is a major health problem affecting  nearly 17.3% of the population. It causes

stunting, reduced immunity, poor cognitive development and mortality among consumers.

Hence the genetic enhancement of rice with increased levels of Zn is a cost-effective strategy in combating  malnutrition.

The concerted efforts made for developing nutritious rice varieties at ICAR-IIRR during 2004

consequently led in the development of  DRR Dhan 45 (IET 23832), a  high yielding Zn rich variety (22ppm)  during 2015.

Empirical Evidences

•DRR Dhan 45 was notified at national level with 5-6 t/ha yield potential and average zinc content of 22 ppm in polished rice.

•Multilocation evaluation testing during 2013-14 in AICRP- biofortification trials showed its

superior performance in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh wherein it has

out yielded the popular yield checks namely Samba Mahsuri and IR 64 by a average yield margin

of 37.1% and 17.2% respectively.

•In Tamil Nadu, IET 23832 surpassed the Samba Mahsuri and IR 64 by a yield margin of 70.2% and

60.3% respectively.

• In Karnataka, it gave 47.8% and 24.5% more yield than Samba Mahsuri and IR 64 respectively.

•Similarly, IET 23832 outyielded Samba Mahsuri and IR 64 by a yield margin of 8.3% and 15.5%

respectively in Andhra Pradesh

•DRR Dhan 45  is  a  proof  of  concept  for  Biofortification  and  can  address  the  hidden  hunger 

or mineral malnutrition, thus targeting  nutritional security of the nation.

 

Practical utility/Scalability

 

• In India people depend mostly on polished rice based foods as daily diet which is generally

deficient in Zinc. Poor people can’t afford to buy supplementary foods as well as zinc fortified

processed foods to have adequate supply of Zn.

•Diet involving biofortified rice helps in meeting daily requirement of Zn (7–13 mg per day for

adults) and thereby improving the  health of human beings.

• Also consumption of biofortified rice cuts down the expenses otherwise incurred on

supplementation and fortified foods of Zn particularly among the poor people. Hence consumption

of DRR Dhan 45 is alternative to mitigate  Zn malnutrition.

 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr.  V. Ravindra Babu and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
17
Apr

DRR DHAN 44 –High yielding Rice Variety for water limiting areas


Technology 3:
DRR DHAN 44 –High yielding Rice Variety for water limiting areas


Technology Profile 

Rice variety DRR Dhan 44 (IET 22081) is released in the year 2014 for cultivation under irrigated conditions for the states of Uttarakhand, Haryana and Bihar. 

It is an early duration; drought tolerant, high yielding and long slender grain variety suited both for transplanted and direct seeded aerobic cultivation with good weed competitive ability. 

Context 

The drought tolerance in rice is very complex, controlled by quantitative traits and is the very reason for poor progress of breeding under drought prone rainfed and low land areas. DRR Dhan 44 was developed by Indian Institute of Rice Research, Rajendranagar, Hyderabad, under the IRRI-India project on Stress Tolerant Rice for Asia and South Africa (STRASA). Though DRR Dhan 44 is released for cultivation under irrigated conditions, it is characterized by very high yield under limited water conditions.   

Empirical Evidences 

•At different locations across the country, it had shown yield advantage over national or regional or local checks viz., of 25.4 over Sahbhagidhan and 31.1% over Narendra 97 on overall basis, 9.8% over Pant Dhan 11 in Uttrakhand, 31.97% over Govind in Haryana, 34.72% over both Prabhat and Rajendra Bhagvati in Bihar. 

•It has desirable grain quality characteristics and several other desirable traits. DRR Dhan 44 is resistant blast, moderate resistant to other diseases and pests such as bacterial leaf blight and plant hoppers. 

• It has tolerance to drought at reproductive stage and also has high nutrient use efficiency. 

Practical Utility/ Scalability 

DRR Dhan 44 is characterized by very high yield under limited water conditions. Recently farmers harvested 8 tonnes/ha in Telangana state during Rabi 2015. It is doing exceedingly well under dry direct seeded conditions (sprinkler irrigation) with minimal inputs. 

Success story of Nandaram Farmer –DRR Dhan 44 cultivation with sprinkler irrigation- Kharif 2015                                                                                                                                                                 

Progressive farmer Mr Gopala Reddy of Nandaram village in Mahaboobnagar District of Telangana state cultivated DRR Dhan 44 in one acre of land. Actually, his land was not amenable for rice cultivation and the area was facing acute water shortage during that period. Mr Gopala Reddy had used limited resources for DRR Dhan 44 cultivation and practiced alternate wetting and drying with sprinkler irrigation. He had harvested 2.5 tonnes of DRR Dhan 44 and was extremely happy with DRR Dhan 44 culitvaiton. From his experience, he encourages many other farmers to cultivate DRR Dhan 44. Though released for irrigated ecology, DRR Dhan is well suited for areas with scarce water resources. 

Performance of DRR Dhan 44 in FLDs and Head to Head Trials during Kharif 2016

Field level demonstrations were conducted during Kharif 2016 to demonstrate the yield advantage of DRR Dhan 44 over mega variety MTU 1010 in Buchiguda village of Farooknagar Mandal of Mehaboob Nagar district of Telangana state. A total of nine farmers (G. Venkat Reddy, G. Narender Reddy, R Mallesh Goud, P Venkat Reddy, K Venkataiah Goud, K Venkatesh, Lakshminarayana Reddy, A Domodhar Reddy and G Narsimha Reddy) cultivated DRR dhan in a total of five hectares. On an average, the yield advantage of DRR Dhan 44 over MTU 1010 was 11.67%. Farmers were satisfied with its cultivation, its high yield and quality and are continuing with its cultivation during Kharif 2017. 

 In Head to Head trial conducted at Chinna solipet of Shabad Mandal in Rangareddy district of Telangana state, Mr Harikrishna Reddy harvested DRR Dhan 44 with a yield advantage of 25% over popular local variety MTU 1010. 

Widespread cultivation of DRR Dhan 44 

The demand for breeder seed of DRR Dhan 44 is gradually increasing since its release. Widespread cultivation of DRR Dhan 44 is seen as evident from seven times increase in the breeder seed indent from 2015-16 to 2017-18 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr.  T Ram and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
20
Apr

Multi variety green manuring for sodic soil management

Technology 14:

Multi variety green manuring for sodic soil management

Green manure crops Control field GM added crop Demonstration plot

Technology Profile
Organic sources are known to improve the soil conditions and green manuring was a recommended practice for problematic soils. The multi variety green manuring technique, popularly known as Dhabolkarmethod  for  management of problematic soils, was tested in the selected farmers’ fieldsby providing  multi variety green manure seed consisting of 15-20 types of seeds including cereals, pulses, oil seeds, green manures and spices @ 20 kg/ac. Green manure crops were grown for 45 days and incorporated into the soil before puddlingand then rice was  transplanted.

Context
Sodicity/alkalinity is a major soil problem in many districts of Telangana and many farmers from different villages of Rangareddy and Nalgonda districts  expressed  the problem of  soil sodicity  that is causing yield reduction to an extent of 50-60% than normal yields. Hence, it was felt that management of these sodic soils would be ideal in these villages. Consequently, a field survey was done and most problematic soils were selected for demonstration of the technology under FLDs for four years in four villages of two districts of Telangana.

Empirical Evidences

Field testing results

  • The difference between  demonstration plot and control plot were very clear where control plot showed nutritional deficiencies due to alkalinity problem  and treated plots were green showing good crop growth.
  • Higher yields were recorded in sodic soils due to improvement in plant population, crop stand, crop growth, more number of tillers and panicles
  • The yield improvement ranged from 16.1 to 31% due to improved practice over control
  • The soil data indicated different degrees of improvement in soil properties where the was reduction in pH and improvement in organic carbon and other nutrients to a greater extent in some fields and there was a little improvement in other fields in a two year period.

Practical Utility/ Scalability

  • By using this simple technology of growing diverse crops as green manures the soil physical, fertility and biological properties will be improved and increases the yield of rice crop.
  • It converts problem soils into fertile soils.
  • It improves soil health as well as plant health and increases the farmer’s income by increasing the yield.
  • Government can encourage this practice in problem soil areas by providing subsidy for the seed material.

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. K. Surekha and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
20
Apr

Aerobic system of Rice cultivation

Technology 13: 

Aerobic system of  Rice cultivation 

DRRDhan44 under aerobic system- 54% water saving – Nandaram, Vikarabad Dist. Telangana

Broadcasting Aerobic Rice – Machilipatnam Guntur Dist, Sprinkler System, Ananthapur Dist. Andhra Pradesh

Technology Profile 

Aerobic rice is a viable option where the shortage of water does not allow the growing of lowland rice. It is growing rice like an upland crop, such as wheat, on non-flooded aerobic soils without stress, thereby eliminating continuous seepage and percolation and greatly reducing evaporation. 

Brief description of the technology 

  • The cultivation package developed, recommended, demonstrated and implemented by the farmers included 
  • High yielding drought tolerant short duration varieties e.g., DRRDhan42, DRRDhan 44 and DRRDhan46 @20-30kg/ha seed rate
  • Well ploughed, and no or very little clods/clumps in field is required like any dry land crops.
  • Sowing by dibbling or drilling at 2-3 cm depth, at a spacing of 20-25 X5cm for HYVs and 25-30X10  cm for Hybrids.
  • Pre-sowing herbicide application of Glyphophate @2.5 to 5 l/ha in the main field 15 days before field preparation. Application of pendimethalin @ /ha within 3 days of sowing and penoxsulam+cyhalotofop butyl @2.5 l/ha. at  20-30 DAS (2-4 leaf stage of weeds)
  • 50%Nitrogen should be applied at 10-12 days after rice emergence, 25% at maximum vegetative stage (45 DAS), 25% N, 25% K at 50% flowering stage is recommended. If Iron deficiency is noticed, spraying of ferrous sulphate @2.0% ferrous sulphate 3 to 4 times at weekly interval.
  • Upon noticing visible symptoms of hairline cracks on soil surface, irrigation is needed to maintain soil at field capacity. Maintenance of saturated condition at critical stages of Active Tillering,Panicle Initiation, Flowering to grain filling stage is essential.
  • Need based application of plant protection chemicals

Context

Need: This can increase cropping intensity and income by growing short duration aerobic rice in kharif and safflower/sunflower in early rabi and vegetables in summer season where water scarcity, labor scarcity, high labor wages and poor economic status of farmers is a problem.
 

Existing practices: When water is limited farmers donot grow rice though they are in need of the staple Crop. Majority of the rice farmers practice flooding irrigation. 

Areas: Wasting of precious water with wrong notion that flooding is compulsory for rice. In majority of the rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhrapradesh. 

Empirical Evidences

Demonstration yields and incomes 

  • Water saving of 30 to 56% compared to conventional flooded irrigation. Aerobic rice requires only  470 to 644 mm water
  • By reduced cost of cultivation with Opportunity costs with fertilizers, pesticides
  • By way of increasing cropping intensity, crop productivity and income

Practical utility/Scalability 

Demonstrations were successful and other rice farmers in the Demo villages are asking for provision of technology and inputs.

Some Progressive farmers are practicing aerobic rice cultivation successfully even with drip irrigation and sprinkler irrigation 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. B. Sreedevi and team

 

 

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
20
Apr

Rice-maize cropping system for more productivity and profitability

Technology 12: 

Rice-maize cropping system for more productivity and profitability 

Technology Profile 

Rice–maize (R–M) systems are rapidly expanding in South Asia, India, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh due to higher yield and profit potential from rabi (winter) maize, its reduced water requirement compared to rice–rice systems, and increasing demand from poultry and fish feed industries. 

Context 

Need – Increase productivity and more profitability 

Existing practices- Majority of the rice farmers practice rice–rice, rice-pulse, rice-oilseed cultivation  which consumes more water and less profitable 

Potential losses: Crop roductivity loss upto 31.4% and gross profit upto ₹ 18638 / ha 

Areas: In majority of the rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh. 

Empirical Evidences 

Demonstration yields and incomes 
System productivity increased by 30% and net profit of ₹ 10000 / ha 

Cropping system REY (t/ha) Gross return (₹/ha)
Rice-rice 7.8  45,124
Rice-wheat 8.4  48,882
Rice-maize  10.2 59,110
Rice-pulse  8.5  49,152
Rice-oilseed  7.0  40,472


Practical utility/Scalability

  • Rice-maize area can be expanded upto 0.53 mha in India
  • Net profitability can be increased to 530 crore for 0.53 mha (₹ 10000 / ha)
  • Already the system is followed in 0.53 mha in India and some patches of rice-rice (4.7 mha), rice-rice-rice (0.04 mha), rice-wheat (9.2 mha)and rice-pulses (3.5 mha) area can be diversified to rice-maize system

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. M.D. Tuti and team

 

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

Integrated Weed Management (IWM) in Rice

Technology 11: 

Integrated Weed Management (IWM) in Rice 

Technology Profile 

The IWM package developed, recommended, demonstrated and implemented by the farmers included 

  • High yielding high zinc medium duration variety DRRDhan 45.
  • Adoption of recommended seed rate of 30kg/ha.
  • Drum seeding under puddle condition/ transplanting.
  • Pre-sowing herbicide application of Glyphophate @2.5 to 5 l/ha in the main field 15 days before field preparation for drum seeder sowing.
  • Application of pyrozosulfuron ethyl @ 200gm/ha within 3 days of sowing.
  • Application of penoxsulam+cyhalotofop butyl @2.5 l/ha.at tillering stage to control second flush of broadspectrum weed flora
  • Top dressing nitrogen only after weeding operation
  • Need based application of plant protection chemicals 

Context 

Need – Due to labor scarcity, high labor wages and  non availability at the critical stages 

Existing practices- Majority of the rice farmers practice manual hand weeding 

Potential losses : Expenditure on  manual hand weeding is nearly double the  expenditure on IWM 

Areas: In majority of the rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhrapradesh 

Empirical Evidences 

Demonstration yields and incomes 

  • By reduced cost of cultivation with Opportunity costs with better weed management
  • By way of  increasing income by improving productivity

Table 4:  IWM in Farmers field Demonstration  for increasing income 

Location

Expenditure Rs/ha

Yield t/ha

Additional Benefit ( Rs/ha)

IWM

Farmers practice

IWM

Farmers practice

Puppalaguda

Rangareddy Dist, Telangana State.

4,342

8,975

6.96

6.13

14,834

Nagapur & Rajanpet,

Medak Dist. Telangana State.

5,837

10,875

6.68

6.10

12,563

Amrad, Madanpalle Thanda & Banapoor, Nizamabad Dist. Telangana State.

6,600

11,575

6.82

5.98

16,396

Practical utility/Scalability

  • Demonstrations were successful and other rice farmers in the Demo villages are asking for provision of technology and inputs. 
  • Progressive rice farmers are practicing IWM successfully 
  • The farmers who understood the benefits of the technology are not going back to manual hand weeding. 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. B. Sreedevi and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

Alternate wetting and drying method of Irrigation for rice to enhance the productivity and water use efficiency

Technology 10: 

Alternate wetting and drying method of Irrigation for rice to enhance the productivity and water use efficiency

Technology Profile

Irrigated rice occupies 50% area and contributes nearly 70% to total rice production of the country with an average yield of 3.1 t/ha.  India’s food security largely depends on irrigated rice which consumes nearly 50- 60% of our finite fresh water resources. Flooded rice requires 900-2250 mm of water (average 1500 mm) depending on the water management, soil and climatic factors. 

  • Rice requires about 3000-4000 lts for producing 1 kg of grain
  • AWD is also called ‘intermittent irrigation’ or ‘controlled irrigation’
  • Alternate flooding Compared with the traditional continuous flooding system, AWD using lowland rice cultivars can reduce water input by 15-30% without any yield loss
  • It can be practiced with Bouman’s tube . 

Context 

Need – Water saving is must in rice as it consumes > 50% of irrigation water of crops Existing practices- Flooding the field and inundation of 5-10 cm in the feild requires more than 1500mm ha  

Potential losses: Water loss, Nutrient losses, soilpollution, reduced productivity 

Areas: In all rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhrapradesh especially borewell irrigated area where controlled irrigation is practiced 

Empirical Evidences

Demonstration yields and incomes 

  • AWD is also called ‘intermittent irrigation’ or ‘controlled irrigation’
  • Alternate flooding Compared with the traditional continuous flooding system, AWD using lowland rice cultivars can reduce water input by 15-30% without yield loss 

Practical utility/Scalability 

  • Saving in 30% of water input
  • Enhancing the water productivity
  • Reduced incidence of pests and diseases
  • Increase in productivity
  • Very easy to scale up
  • More than 500 farmers adopted it and found promising 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. R.M. Kumar and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

Modified Leaf Colour Chart for Enhancing the Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Reducing the Cost of Cultivation

Technology 9: 

Modified Leaf Colour Chart for Enhancing the Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Reducing the Cost of Cultivation 


Technology Profile 

Rice yields are decelerating or stagnating with indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers, especially nitrogenous one due to its easy availability and cheaper cost causing environmental pollution and more incidences of pests and diseases. The tendency of increased application of N fertilizer is very common with our farmers, as they attribute the crop greenness and growth due to N application to yields of the rice crop.  Blanket   or package fertilizer recommendations   over large areas are not efficient because of indegenous nutrient supply varies among rice fields.  

  • Hence there is a need to synchronize N fertilizer application to plant needs to optimize nutrient use and minimize environmental pollution
  • The customized LCC developed at IIRR, Hyderabad on the basis of spectral evaluation of leaves of hundreds of varieties under different N levels can be used for real time N management by using the N application schedules (20-30 kg N/ha depending on the crop stage).

 Context 

Need: Balanced N application, timely application, as per the need of the crop Existing practices: General broadcasting and application of higher nitrogen (2-3 times more than  recommended Potential losses: Nutrient losses, soil pollution, enhancing the pests and diseases Areas: In all rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhrapradesh 

Empirical Evidences 

Demonstration yields and incomes 

Increased N fertilizer efficiency at high yield levels is possible in hybrids and high-yielding varieties using a chlorophyll meter and LCC to monitor leaf N status and guide fertilize N timing in irrigated rice. These methods not only reduced N requirement (25%) but also improved  congruence  of N supply  and crop demand than fixed timing of N application treatment 

Practical utility/Scalability 

  • Saving in cost of nitrogen by 25%
  • Improved soil health due to less Urea
  • Reduced incidence of pests and diseases
  • Most suited for irrigated rice system

Scalability: 

  • Already most of the State governments are supplying to Farming community
  • Very easy to scale up
  • Simple devise and practicable

Approximately 2 lakh farmers are using in the country in different stattes

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. R.M. Kumar and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

SRI method for resource conservation, profitability and sustainable rice production

Technology 8:

SRI method for resource conservation, profitability and sustainable rice production 



Technology Profile 

The future of country’s rice production will depend heavily on developing and adopting strategies and practices that use irrigation water efficiently at the farm level.  System of Rice Intensification (SRI) is one such method which has a potential to produce more rice with less water.  Until 1990, the impression was that rice yields better only under flooded conditions. Hence, Water saving technologies in rice is the need of the hour and SRI method which had been tested for last one decade at IIRR and AICRIP programme is one technology which can save resources to more than 30%. 

Context 

Need: Increase productivity, reduced cost of cultivation, enhancing the soil productivity Existing  practices- Majority of the rice farmers practice flooded rice cultivation which consumes 1200 mm ha of water  Potential losses: Water losses, productivity and profitability to an extent of 30% 

Areas: In majority of the rice growing areas in Telangana and Andhrapradesh especially suited for Borewell 46% (DRR, 2005-2014) 

Empirical Evidences 

Demonstration yields and incomes 

SRI spaces rice plants more widely and does not depend on continuous flooding of rice fields. It uses lesser seed, chemical inputs and promotes soil biotic activities in and around the root zone, due to liberal applications of compost and weeding with a rotating hoe that aerates the soil. These changed practices with lower inputs lead to enhanced yields with considerable savings of inputs especially the water which is becoming scarce over the years. Grain yield increase by 10-25% and water use decreased by 29%. 

Practical utility/Scalability 

  1. Saving in seed cost to the extent of 60%
  2. Improved soil health due to use of orgnaics
  3. Reduced incidence of pests and diseases
  4. Eco-friendly method of rice cultivation
  5. Most suited for hybrid rice cultivation and quality seed production
  6. Already the Practice is followed in 53 countries across the world
  7. A million farmers in India are practicing the principles of SRI method

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. R.M. Kumar and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

DNA marker-based assay for rapid and reliable estimation of genetic purity of seeds of Rice Hybrids and Parental lines

Technology 7:

DNA marker-based assay for rapid and reliable estimation of genetic purity  of seeds of Rice Hybrids and Parental lines

 

Technology Profile 

Seed quality control in terms of maintenance of genetic purity is a vital component of any hybrid crop seed industry. Traditionally, seed purity is ascertained through a morphological assay called ‘Grow-out Test (GOT)’, which has several limitations 

ICAR-IIRR, Hyderabad has developed a DNA marker-based assay for rapid and reliable estimation of purity of seeds of rice hybrids and parental lines. 

Hybrid seed purity is assessed on single seed/seedling basis using a parental polymorphic SSR marker, which is specific for a particular rice hybrid or using a functional marker, named RMS-PPR9-2, which targets the candidate gene for Rf4, the major fertility restoring gene. 

For assessing genetic purity of seeds of WA-CMS lines (i.e. the female parent used for hybrid seed production), a functional marker, named RMS-5-WA352, which is specific for the candidate gene associated with cytoplasmic male sterility is deployed to accurately discriminate WA-CMS lines from the maintainer lines. 

Context 

Most of the private hybrid rice seed industry is based in and around Hyderabad and seed production is generally done during Rabi season. Even a 1% contamination in seeds of rice hybrids can reduce the crop yields by 100 kg/ha. Similarly, 1% impurity in seeds of WA-CMS line can result in significantly higher level of impurities in hybrid seed production (i.e. > 5%).  Due to this, seed genetic purity and seed quality control are vital for success of hybrid rice seed industry. 

As GOT takes one full growing season and the private companies cannot wait for the results of GOT, a rapid and reliable assay for assessing seed purity is imperative. In this context, the DNA marker based assay developed by ICAR-IIRR can help the hybrid seed industry to accurately identify impure seedlots quickly. 

The DNA marker based assay for hybrids and WA-CMS lines can be deployed immediately after the harvest of the seeds in Rabi season and the analysis is based on single seed/seedling. Results can be made available within a fortnight of submission and decision for marketing the pure seeds can be taken before the commencement of the Kharif season. 

Empirical Evidences 

Blind tests and commercial analysis of seed-lots 

Through Blind tests carried out in collaboration with Hybrid rice section and also with samples provide by private seed companies, the assay was able to accurately identify contaminants in seed-lots of rice hybrids and WA-CMS lines. 

From 2007, ICAR-IIRR is providing the DNA-marker based assay for assessment of impurities in seedlots of rice Hybrids and parental lines on a commercial scale to several public and private sector seed companies. So far, we have successfully completed analysis for more than 1200 seed-lots and the results were deemed to be accurate by the clients. We are also working on using some of the high-throughput tools for analysis of bulked samples, thus saving cost and time. 

Practical Utility/ Scalability 

The assay is presently offered on a single seed/seedling basis and results can be made available within 10-15 days of submission of samples. We are presently working towards utilizing some of the high throughput tools for estimation of purity on bulked sample basis. Once the assay is standardized, results can be provided within 3-4 days of submission of samples. 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. Raman Meenakshi Sundaram and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

Hybrid Rice Seed Production

Technology 6:

Hybrid Rice Seed Production

Technology Profile 

Hybrid rice technology is playing a pivotal role in increasing the rice production and productivity in India and is one of the components of ‘National Food security Mission’ which was launched in 2007 with an aim to enhance the national annual rice production 

With good management, yield advantage of 1.0 – 1.5 t/ha can be obtained by cultivation of hybrids as compared to the high yielding varieties under the same set of growing conditions. 

So far, ninety seven hybrids have been released for commercial cultivation in the country. It’s predominantly cultivated in the states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and in 2017, the area under hybrid rice exceeded three m.ha.

Hybrid rice seed production is economically lucrative and this institute has perfected the technology over the years and many progressive seed growers recorded more than three tons of hybrid seed yield per hectare. 

Context 

Availability of quality seed at an affordable price is crucial for spread of hybrid rice technology in the country. Hybrid rice seed production technology is different and more complex than the inbred rice seed production. It has been observed that farmers in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana sates have been taking up hybrid rice seed production on a large scale.Presently, about 85% of the hybrid seed requirement in the country is provided by Andhra Pradesh and Telangana states. It is mostly concentrated in Karimnagar and Warangal districts of Telangana and is also spreading to other districts such as Nizamabad, Khammam and Kurnool (Andhra Pradesh).The major players in the large scale hybrid rice seed production are private seed companies and farmers take up the activity with a kind of understanding with these companies. 

Empirical Evidences: 

Even though the total costs incurred on hybrid rice seed production were more, both the gross and net returns are higher. The gross return per hectare is expected to be around Rs. 2 lakhs and from this the farmer realizes a net profit of Rs. 0.75-1 Lakh per hectare. This technology also has potential to generate additional employment viz., around 60-80 persondays/ha, particularly for the landless rural women. Thus, during the current year 2017, the additional employment being generated, is estimated to be around 25,00,000 person-days. Expected additional employment generation during 2022 due to hybrid rice seed production will be around 30,00,000 person-days, thus providing ample employment opportunities in the rural areas. 

Practical Utility/ Scalability

There is going to be huge demand for hybrid rice seed in the coming years, as the area under hybrid rice is targeted to be increased from the present 3 m.ha. to around 8-10 m.ha in the coming 5-10 years, in the country and most of the seed production is going to happen in Andhra Pradesh and Telangana only. From the present level of 40000 tonnes of hybrid rice seed per year, it needs to be upscaled to around 80000-100000 tonnes in the coming 5-10 years, indicating a huge potential for hybrid rice seed production in the region. 

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. A S Hari Prasad and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
18
Apr

DRR Dhan 49 – High Zinc and high yielding rice variety

Technology 5:

DRR Dhan 49 – High Zinc and high yielding rice variety

Technology Profile

DRR Dhan 49 is a high yielding variety with high Zinc content. This variety was developed from the cross RP Bio226*1/CSR27 following backcross and pedigree selection breeding method. This variety contains very high Zinc content of 25.2 ppm which is higher than checks like Kalanamak and Chittimuthyalu. It also recorded superior grain yield than national check IR 64. In addition to superior grain yield and high Zinc, it also possesses strong culm there by having tolerance to lodging. It contains erect and wide flag leaf which improves it photosynthetic ability. It is also having the desirable grain type of Medium slender which is mostly accepted and consumed in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.

Context

In the past 40 years, agricultural research for developing countries has focused on increased cereal production. Recently, there has been a shift: Agriculture must now not only produce more calories to reduce hunger, but also more nutrient-rich food to reduce hidden hunger.  One in three people in the world suffer from hidden hunger, caused by a lack of minerals (Iron and Zinc) and vitamins in their diets, which leads to negative health consequences. Biofortification provides a feasible means of reaching malnourished rural populations who may have limited access to diverse diets, supplements, and commercially fortified foods. To achieve nutritional security, DRR Dhan 49, a high yielding, high Zn rice variety (Zn content 25 ppm) was developed by crossing RP Bio226 with CSR27. 

Empirical Evidences 

Multilocation testing through AICRIP 

In AICRIP testing for three years (2014-2016), DRR Dhan 49 showed high Zinc content of 25.2ppm which was higher than IR 64 (16.9ppm), BPT 5204 (16.9ppm), Kalanamak (18.7ppm) and Chittumuthyalu (23ppm).

During 2015 and 2016 under AICRIP, the variety recorded superior grain yield than national check IR 64 (4%), Kalanamak (55%) and Chittumuthyalu (22%).

It was found promising for the states of Kerala, Maharashtra and Gujarat with three years of testing under AICRIP.

It is also having the desirable grain type of Medium slender which is mostly accepted and consumed in the states of Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.

The entry has shown resistance to Bacterial leaf blight disease, moderately tolerant to RTD, Sheath rot, neck blast and brown spot. 

Practical Utility/ Scalability

Rice is a staple food in India and if we use biofortified rice variety like DRR Dhan 49 with high Zinc content, it will reach the poor, under nourished segment of the society. It will be very useful for pregnant women and children to overcome malnutrition.
Since it is high yielding and having Medium slender grain type, tolerant to lodging, it is easily acceptable by farmers of Southern states Telangana, Andhra pradesh, Karnataka and Tamilnadu.
If this variety is multiplied in large scale and final polished rice is distributed through Public distribution system, it will reach the poor and malnourished people easily.
If tag of High Zinc content is added to the label, the finished product will have higher price in supermarkets, hence farmers income will also increase..

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. T Ram and team

 

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
17
Apr

DRR DHAN 42 [IR 64 (Drt 1)] - First Drought Tolerant MAS derived Rice Variety

 
Technology 2

DRR DHAN 42 [IR 64 (Drt 1)] - First Drought Tolerant MAS derived Rice  Variety

 

Technology Profile

DRR Dhan 42 (IR 64 Drt1) is a first drought tolerant rice variety released in 2014, developed using Marker Assisted Selection. It produces high yield under drought stress conditions at reproductive and grain filling stages. DRR Dhan 42 is a near-isogenic line of IR 64 with two QTLs introgressed for yield under stress qDTY 2.2 and qDTY 4.1. The QTLs for yield under drought stress were introgressed from Aday Sel by repeated backcrossing followed by intermating under IRRI-India STRASA programme. DRR Dhan 42 is characterized by high yield than IR 64 under drought situations and on par yield with IR 64 under normal conditions.
Context
It is estimated that by 2025, 15-20 million hectares of irrigated rice will suffer from some degree of water scarcity. In this context, it is important to develop and promote strategies to help the farmers to adapt for improving water management and productivity. Developing drought tolerant varieties, using the concept of introgressing yield QTLs under drought in high yielding back ground without reducing yield under normal condition is the ideal strategy to maximise rice yields in drought prone areas. This concept was used in the development of DRR Dhan 42. The QTLs for yield under drought stress identified at IRRI and elsewhere were used at IIRR and introgressed qDTY2.2+qDTY4.1 QTLs under drought in the back ground of mega variety IR 64 grown under rainfed mid land using two back cross followed by two selected intermating in association with IRRI, Philippines.

Practical Utility/ Scalability

• DRR Dhan 42 produces high yield under drought stress conditions at reproductive and grain filling stages.                  

• Improving yield of varieties along with drought tolerance is very difficult. Hence, instead of developing drought tolerant varieties, the concept of introgressing yield QTLs under drought inhigh yielding back ground without reducing yield under normal condition is the ideal strategy to maximise rice yields in drought prone areas. 

• Mr Harikrishna Reddy of Shabad Mandal, Rangareddy District of Telangana State cultivated DRR Dhan 42 and IR 64 each in one acre of land during Kharif 2016. DRR Dhan 42 expressed yield advantage of 19.5% over IR 64.

Technology / Concept developed by Dr.  T Ram and team

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
17
Apr

Improved Samba Mahsuri: a high yielding, bacterial blight resistant, fine-grain type, low glycemic index rice variety

Technology 1

Improved Samba Mahsuri: a high yielding, bacterial blight resistant, fine-grain type, low glycemic index rice variety



Technology Profile

Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) is a bacterial blight resistant rice variety, jointly developed and releasedby ICAR-Indian Institute of Rice Research (ICAR-IIRR), Hyderabad and CSIR-Centre for Cellular andMolecular Biology (CCMB), Hyderabad through the novel tool of molecular marker-assisted selection. ISM is a fine and medium-slender grains variety having excellent cooking and eating quality with yieldpotential of 5.5-6 t/ha. It is highly resistance against bacterial blight disease, as it possesses threemajor resistance genes, Xa21, xa13 and xa5 incorporated using molecular marker based technology.Recently, it has also been confirmed to be a low glycemic index (50.9) rice.It is one of the first biotechnology derived product in the country and has been registered with Protection of Plant Varieties and Farmer’s Rights Authority.

Context

Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) can be cultivated in those rice growing areas where bacterial blight disease is endemic and also in the areas where fine-grained rice varieties like Samba Mahsuri, HMT Sona and PKV-HMT are grown.

Under bacterial blight infection, ISM gives more yield than the susceptible varieties like Samba Mahsuri HMT sona, PKV HMT etc. 

Bacterial blight is a serious production constraint in Nizamabad, Karimnagar and Khammam districts of Telangana state and Kurnool, East Godavari, West Godavari, Guntur and Krishna Districts of Andhra Pradesh. Farmer’s in bacterial blight endemic areas of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh can certainly get additional returns by cultivating ISM.

Considering the fact that many areas of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh States are increasingly becoming susceptible to bacterial blight disease, and also considering the increasing demand for fine-grain type rice varieties with low GI values, ISM can certainly give additional returns to farmers of both the states.
Empirical Evidences

Field testing results

Through Front-line demonstrations and mini-kit trails, Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) reported an increased yield of 25-40 % in bacterial blight endemic areas of Telangana State and Andhra Pradesh, while in uninfected fields, ISM has been observed to show yield levels similar to its parental variety, Samba Mahsuri. Additionally Most importantly, ISM commands the same premium market price like Samba Mahsuri and hence it is highly preferred by farmers in many parts of the country and also in Telangana State and Andhra Pradesh.

Demonstration yields and incomes:

A socio-economic impact assessment study carried out by MANAGE, Hyderabad has revealed that the trait value of bacterial blight resistance, which represents the value that farmers have obtained by cultivating ISM instead of Samba Mahsuri, amounts to Rs. 240 crore. This represents the estimated reduction in loss that was prevented due to the adoption of ISM owing to its bacterial blight resistance (Reddy, 2017, Economic and political weekly 39: 17-20). Most importantly Improved Samba Mahsuri fetches premium price like Samba Mahsuri and other elite fine-grain type rice varieties and hence the variety is increasingly getting popular in bacterial blight endemic areas throughout the country, especially in those areas, where fine-grained varieties are prefer   

Practical Utility/ Scalability

It is estimated that > 2 Mha in the country is highly prone to bacterial blight disease and in most of these areas, fine-grain varieties like Samba Mahsuri, HMT Sona, Improved Samba Mahsuri (ISM) etc. are being preferred by farmers. Considering the fact that Improved Samba Mahsuri has the same high yield, premium grain quality like Samba Mahsuri and has additional benefits of high level of bacterial blight resistance and low GI value, it can be expected that its area can increase from the present level of ~1,50,000 ha to about 1.5 Mha, thus benefitting the farmers in terms of getting increased yield under bacterial blight incidence and better market price due to its premium grain quality and low GI value. ISM has been licensed to two seed companies, M/s Sri Biotech Pvt. Ltd., Hyderabad and M/s Metahelix Life Sciences, Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore. Due to its low GI value, two firms, M/s Good Brands for a Health Life. New Delhi and M/s Gajanan Industries, Nizamabad have signed a licensing agreement for marketing rice grains of ISM. Due to its low GI and high level of resistance to bacterial blight, the area under ISM can be expected to increase significantly in the near future.

Technology / Concept developed by Dr. Raman Meenakshi Sundaram and team

 

Related Terms: EISProduction Know How
29
Jul

‘Hand Operated Winnower’ Improved Rice Quality and Income


Mr. Dwan Khream is a small farmer of the Ri-Bhoi district in Meghalaya. Among other vegetable crops, he mainly grows rice on his 1.5 acre of land which falls under 50 per cent plain and 50 per cent sloppy categories- a prominent feature of the ‘hill farming’ in the NEH region. Despite good yield from paddy, Dwan did not make profit by selling it at nearby market as impurities mixed with rice due to traditional winnowing method had reduced the price of the paddy. Then, on advice of scientists, he used “Hand Operated Winnower” which made winnowing easier and resulted in better income.

Traditional winnowing

Total 5-6 labours are required to start traditional paddy cleaning where rice crop is beaten by two or three persons on wooden logs. After collecting the rice in big baskets, these are raised above the head by a person standing on a self-made bamboo-frames platform to clean husk and impurities from rice. Sometimes, the person has to stand long on the bamboo-platform to wait for a gust of wind. Under such threshing operation, the standing person has to balance himself against the flow of wind. Since the method of paddy cleaning is wind dependent, arrival of monsoon, or untimely rains, also got spoil the rice crop permanently. Other than this, many farmers use dao (chopper), spade, hoes, sickles, country plough, bamboo made leveller, and transporting baskets for different farm jobs. Following the age-old threshing technique, rice quality deteriorated, resulting into poor market price of the same crop.

Hand operated winnower
Agriculture Engineering Division of ICAR-RC-NEH Region, Barapani demonstrated ‘Hand operated winnower’ to few farmers in Meghalaya, so that they could clean paddy crop timely maintaining. Practically, the Hand Operated Winnower is a machine that uses fan blades, chain and sprocket arrangement to enable fan operations faster with little effort. Weighing around 29 kg, the Hand Operated Winnower is provided with a fan guard to prevent any accident

Extra Income Generation
Dwan purchased the machine at Rs 3,000 from the ICAR institute. He re-threshed his paddy and noticed the difference. This time, he got better quality rice follwed by better market price thereafter. Seeing the difference of rice threshing comparing the old ones, a few of his close friends came to him and used the machine. They were satisfied with the quality of rice. After a short while, on hearing the news that Hand Operated Winnower increased incom, a large group of fellow rice farmers swarmed around him.

Mr. Dwan decided to rent the winnower out to fellow farmers at Rs. 100 per user in the local area which brought him Rs. 3,000-5,000 in one-year duration from 2011 – 2012.
“If small and marginal farmers go for it, rice crop alone can give them extra money, and a suitable job also,” said Dwan to fellow farmers during a recent training programme at ICAR-Barapani. There is considerable scope for this technology, since rice covers about 3.5 million hectare (10% of the total rice growing area of the country) in NEH Region. On an average, output of the winnower, taken by the local farmers, was recorded to be as 2.5-3.5 q/h.

File Courtesy: 
NAIP Mass Media Project, DKMA, with input from ICAR-RC-NEH, Barapani and Agriculture Engineering Division, ICAR
20
Jul

Aromatic Rice: An Overview

Rice (Oryza sativa), one of the three most important food crops in the world, forms the staple diet of 2.7 billion people. It is grown successfully in different parts of the world from 39°S south (Australia) to 50°N latitude (China). It can grow at altitudes ranging from 10 feet below sea level to 10,000 feet above sea level. Rice is a major food crop that is grown in dry land (or upland) conditions on mountain slopes as well as in wetland conditions in Valley bottoms and in terraced fields. It is a subsistence crop for most farmers. Rice is the longest continuously grown cereal crop in the world and according to the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) it is “one of the most important developments in history”. It is grown in all the continents except Antarctica, occupying 150 million hectare (M ha) and producing 573 million tones (Mt) paddy with an average productivity of 3.88 tones per hectare (t ha-1). Its cultivation is of immense importance to food security of Asia, where more than 90% of the global rice is produced and consumed. Rice is seen as a political good in many Asian countries due to its big impact on economy, society and political stability. Rice production is highly diversified and there are strong consumer preferences and a low degree of substitutability in both production and consumption. Almost three billion people worldwide are dependent on rice for their calorie intake, and farming and milling provides employment to many people in the world. In Asia and the Pacific alone, rice production is employing about 300 million people.

The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations had declared 1966 the Year of Rice. Due to the importance of rice, year 2004 was declared the International Year of Rice by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 2002 with the aim of once again turning the attention of the world on rice as an instrument of food security and poverty reduction. This is the second time that the United Nations has paid such a special tribute to rice, the only food crop honoured twice. Rice is the single most important employment and income source for the rural poor. Besides being an essential food, rice is also an important factor in enriching culture, lifestyles and ecosystem functions. Rice is a symbol of cultural identity, global unity and life. Rice has a meaning beyond just food supply and employment in Asia, namely it is also seen as a political good due to its massive influence on social, economic and political stability.

The origin of paddy rice cultivation is located somewhere in the Southeastern part of Asia and is said to date back at least 7,000 years. Since that time, the distribution of paddy rice cultivation has been greatly expanded, but even today it is basically confined to monsoon Asia, near its place of origin. This is not the case for other major cereals such as wheat and maize, which have expanded their area of distribution throughout the world. Kawaguchi and Kyuma consider that this specific distribution pattern of rice is the result of two factors. One is the concentration of rainfall, often more than 1000 mm during the rainy season and the other is the very large expanse of lowlands in monsoon Asia. This indicates that tropical Asia, with only 1/13 of the world's land area, has more than 1/3 of the potentially arable lowlands. Rice is the crop best suited to such lowlands, where water inundates naturally as rainfalls and rivers flood. Thus, a unique combination of climate and landform has helped create the paddy rice system in Asia.

The rice-plant is a type of grass whose grain is what we call rice. The rice takes between 90 to 200 days to mature and there exist about 1, 20,000 different types of rice, both cultivated and wild varieties. In the International rice gene bank at the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) there are more than 1, 00,000 rice accessions stored. Differences between species are based on characteristics such as biotic factors; productivity, resistance to disease and insects, and so called non-biotic factors, toleration of cold and drought etc. and many other variables. The genus Oryza has two cultivated and 22 wild species. Of the two cultivated species, O. sativa (2n=24 AA), commonly referred to as Asian rice, is grown worldwide, whereas O. glaberrima (2n=24 AA), “African rice,” is cultivated in a limited area in West Africa. Rice grown in Asia has two subspecies Oryza sativa L. subsp. india which originated in India and Oryza sativa L. subsp. japonica which has its origin in the eastern part of Asia. Rice can be divided into different groups depending on its characteristics and is usually classified after the shape of the grain and its kernel form. Rice is divided into long-, medium- and short-grain varieties, where long-grain rice is usually longer than 6.2 millimeters (mm) or about three times long of its width. Medium-grain rice is approximately 2.1 to 2.9 times long of it is width. And last, the category short-grain rice is less then twice as long as it is wide. Rice can be divided into different sub-groups such as aromatic rice which includes types of rice with strong tastes such as jasmine and Basmati, which are both long-grain and non-glutinous. Another group is glutinous rice, also called sticky rice, which contains a high degree of starch and of which there are both long- and short grain varieties. Fourteen different varieties of rice are grown in different areas and are also consumed in different parts of the world.

Rice and rice-based products derived from rice grain and rice flour include parboiled rice; quick-cooking rice and ready to eat convenience foods; rice flours; rice starch; cakes and puddings; baked breads and crackers; breakfast cereals and expanded rice products; extrusion-cooked and puffed rice snacks; noodles, paper and pasta; by/weaning foods; fermented foods and beverages; pet foods; and bran products. Rice is processed and used as various kinds of foodstuffs besides direct food use, such as parboiled rice, fermented rice wine, rice noodles, rice crackers, rice cakes, rice snacks, rice flour, and other fermented rice products.

Indian economy is mainly based on agriculture. Growth rate for overall GDP of India was 8.5% whereas for agriculture and allied sectors it was 10%. India is the largest growing country (8°N to 34°N latitude) of the rice under varying climatic conditions and it accounts for more than 40% of food grain production, providing direct employment to 70% people in rural areas. Being the staple food for more than 65% of the people, our national food security hinges on growth and stability of its production.

Aromatic rice and its characteristic features
Every state in the country has its own quality/specialty rice varieties. Aromatic or scented rice have long been highly regarded in Indian society not only because of their excellent quality but also because they had been considered auspicious. The aromatic rice varieties in the states of West Bengal, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Bihar and North East region are very short, fine grained and highly scented. Each one is highly priced in the locality where they are grown. These varieties are characterised by weak stem, very long growth duration, low grain weight and poor yield. Farmers mainly grow these varieties for their own consumption and ceremonial purposes and they do not have well developed market.

There is another category of aromatic rice varieties, which is long grained with a unique combination of grain, cooking and eating quality. Quality traits of these rice varieties are best expressed when grown in northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. India and Pakistan are the traditional producers and exporters of Basmati rice and in the world market it fetches three times high price than high quality non Basmati type rice. Due to polygenic nature of inheritance of the several quality characters, it has been difficult to increase the yield potential of Basmati rice varieties while retaining the same quality characteristics.

The word “Basmati” has been designed from two Sanskrit roots: vas (meaning aroma) and mayup (meaning ingrained or present from the beginning).Thus the word Basmati implies “ingrained aroma”. So it is the aroma that gives Basmati its novel characteristics unmatched by any other rice grain anywhere else in the world. Many scented varieties of rice have been cultivated in the Indian sub-continent from time immemorial but Basmati distinguishes itself from all other aromatic rice due to its unique aromatic characteristics coupled with silky texture of its long grain. There is general notion that any aromatic rice is Basmati, however this is not the case. No single criterion can distinguish Basmati rice from other rices.

A harmonious combinations of minimum kernel dimensions, intensity of aroma, texture of cooked rice high volume expansion during cooking made up by linear kernel elongation with minimum breadth wises swelling, fluffiness, palatability, easy digestibility and longer self life quality makes a rice to be Basmati in consumers and traders view. The special characteristics of Basmati rice are (a) a ‘greasy’ look without any abdominal white, (b) an entire rice grain, (c) fully developed and uniform kernel, (d) neither too soft nor too hard when crushed under the teeth, (e) nearly double elongation after cooking, (f) absence of bursting or stickiness and (g) sweetness and special aroma of the cooked rice.

Area and production of rice crop
Worldwide production and yield of crops have been increasing since 1960 due to the adoption of modern varieties, the expansion of agricultural lands, and the use of intensification measures. Yield growth accounted for almost all of the increases in food production in developing countries. Modern varieties accounted for 21% of the growth in yields and about 17% of production growth in the early Green revolution period, and accounting for almost 50% of yield growth and 40% of production growth in the late stage for all developing countries. Land expansion accounted for about 20% of the increases in production and the rest came from intensification of input use.

Rice production has been increased tremendously from 20.6 Mt in 1950-51 to 93 Mt in 2001 -02 due to increase in area under rice from 30.8 to 44.6 M ha and productivity from 668 to 1804 kg ha-1. The Paddy production in Gujarat was 1277 thousand tones from 675 thousand hectares in 2003-2004 whereas it was 1197 thousand tones from 679 thousand hectares in 2004-2005 i.e., production was decreased by 6.26% over previous year even though area was increased by 0.59% over previous year. The Productivity of rice in Gujarat state is very poor i.e., 1,356 kg ha-1 as against 1,947 kg/ha average productivity of the nation. More than 40% rice area is concentrated in very low productivity group followed by nearly 40% area in medium to low productivity group.

The major factor that has contributed to poverty alleviation is the reduced unit cost of production and the downward trend in real prices of food. Low food prices benefited the urban laboring class and the rural landless and marginal farmers who are net buyers of food from the market. As a result, the food entitlement of the poor improved substantially. In future, expansion of area under rice is very unlikely due to tremendous increase in population and urbanization. Therefore, increasing demand has to come from increase in productivity per unit area. For achieving this, one of the prime requirements and non monetary input is transplanting the suitable cultivars at an appropriate time.

Aromatic rice growing regions Basmati rices have been traditionally cultivated in northern India, confined mainly to Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and adjoining districts of Rajasthan. It is said that Basmati grows best and produces best quality grains under warm, humid, valley like conditions. Experience has also shown that when true Basmati varieties are cultivated outside these traditional Basmati areas, the grains do not have the same quality. During vegetative period high humidity (70 to 80%) and a temperature ranges of 25 to 35°C are favourable. From flowering onwards bright and clear sunny day with a temperature range of 25 to 32°C, comparatively cooler night (20 to 25°C) moderate humidity and gentle wind velocity at the time of flowering and maturity are considered necessary for proper grain and aroma development. The area under Basmati rice cultivation in India is 1 M ha and in Pakistan is 0.75 M ha. In India highest area under Basmati rice is in Uttar Pradesh (0.4 M ha) followed by Haryana (0.25 M ha), Uttranchal (0.10 M ha), Punjab (0.10 M ha), Jammu & Kashmir (0.05 M ha) and Rajasthan (0.05 M ha) documented by Sharma and Nayak (2005).

Basmati rice has been in cultivation for generations in North Western India confined mainly to Punjab, Haryana, Western U.P. and adjoining district of Rajasthan. Introduction of high yielding varieties further contributed to the reduction in acreage during the early seventies. However, with the establishment of modern mills in the early eighties and on increase in the export demand, there has been continuous increase in the area under Basmati rice cultivation. At present, India produces about 1.2 Mt (rough rice basis) with an average of 1.5 to 1.8 t ha-1 from 0.7 to 0.8 M ha which is 1.6 to 1.9 per cent as compared to the area under non-Basmati rice.  

Status of rice production and its requirement by 2030
The rice is a staple food and continuous supply is to be maintained to the consumers. To ensure regular supply of the food grain proper steps are required to be taken in advance. If supply is not maintained uninterrupted than there are chances of a large number of human population drowning in perpetual hunger. About 1 billion households depend on rice cultivation for employment and their main source of livelihood. As the rice consuming population continues to grow, and the land and water resources needed for rice production diminish, we may face a potential crisis. World rice production has been less than rice consumption since 2000. This insufficiency has been addressed by drawing on rice from buffer stock. In this context, advances in science and technology, as well as rice research, are increasingly critical to enhance rice production and sustainable agricultural development. Ensuring an increase in sustainable rice production will require innovation and cooperation within the scientific community, as well as commitment and shared responsibility among all stakeholders.

Paddy rice and wheat could have an equivalent share in global cereals production till 2030. Paddy rice and wheat is estimated to account for 2/3 of the cereals production. Both paddy rice and wheat should be the dominant cereal food in the world before 2030. Per capita cereals production for developed countries, wheat would amount to 1/3 of cereals and paddy rice has a very low proportion, which demonstrates that wheat should be the dominant cereal crop in these countries. Unlike developed countries, paddy rice is expected to be the dominant cereal crop (1/2) and wheat is just 1/2 of paddy rice in developing countries per capita production.

Paddy rice yield would increase by 2030 to 24.7 to 35.5% and reach 5.28 to 5.73 metric tones/hectare (mt ha-1). Paddy rice production in developing countries is estimated to grow at annual rate of 9, 476, 885 mt, much higher than developed countries (74, 027 mt yr-1). Till 2030 the production in developing countries is expected to significantly raise 30.9 to 41.8% against the probable increase of 7.6 to 21.0% in developed countries. Yield increase in developing countries (25.6 to 36.9%) may also be higher than developed countries (4.0 to 23.1%). With a projected production of 5.9 to 7.7 mt, Asia is forecasted to be still the major region for paddy rice production in the world. By 2030 Asia’s paddy rice yield is estimated to increase 11.7 to 23.4% and reach 4.59 to 5.08 mt ha-1. On the other hand, Europe (79.0 to 139.2 kg ha-1 yr-1), Oceania (69.3 to 106.7 kg ha-1 yr-1) and North & Central America (65.8 to 74.0 kg ha-1 yr-1) are estimated to have higher annual rates in paddy rice yield, and the production in these regions is expected to reach 7.6 to 9.7 mt, 8.8 to 12.4 mt and 7.4 to 8.2 mt respectively by 2030.

Per capita cereals production of the world is estimated to probably increase 4.5% (1.3 to 10.2%) and reach 375.3 kg yr-1 by 2030. Per capita production in developed countries (7.9 to 39.5%) may have a much higher level than developing countries (0.2 to 7.7%) and is projected to be three times of the later (899.1 kgyr-1 vs. 273.8 kg yr-1) till 2030. Oceania (955.2 kg yr-1) and North & Central America (833.6 kg yr-1) may have the greatest per capita cereals production, while per capita production in Caribbean (62.1 kg yr-1) and Africa (122.2 kg yr-1) should be lower by 2030. Asia is forecasted to be the largest region in cereals production but per capita production in this region (233.3 kg yr-1) may still be lower.
India is essentially an agricultural country with over three-fourths of the population living in rural areas and dependent on agriculture related occupations. Pre-Independent India was badly hurt by frequent famines and drought. The eminent economist Amartya Sen owes his major works on hunger to the devastations of the great Bengal famine which had made deep impressions on him when he was still a child. If India today is self sufficient in food, it is in no small measure due to indigenous agricultural research. Of course, India still has a long way to go. The population is increasing; the land area under cultivation is decreasing and excessive use of chemical fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides are adversely affecting the environment. Far more needs to be produced than now, and produced in a much safer way. These are enough challenges to keep our agricultural research establishment busy. Modern day rice variety have yield potentials much greater than their traditional predecessors, a characteristics that has greatly increased rice production worldwide.

Rice production increased with time, this might be due to technological advances and more efficient use of inputs coupled with increased area under cultivation. Still there are few downfalls which clearly states that prevailing weather has significant effect on yield of rice. Rice production may change as a result of global warming through the CO2 increase, temperature rise and change in precipitation. Thus, policymakers require reliable projections of the regional impacts on the production in order to consider mitigation and adaptation techniques. Projections of regional climate change and impact on rice production are important in relation to food security for these areas, as stated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Third Assessment Report.

Role of aromatic rice in the export earnings
India is one of the important countries in the world in export of rice. India's exports are expected to go up further during current financial year. Hence, Indian rice exports are set to reach second place in the world markets after Thailand edging out Vietnam in the process as per the report of the Food and Agricultural Organisation. Basmati export market is a lucrative area. Though India and Pakistan enjoy to have the maximum shares in this market, competitors from others countries are already coming up. Basmati varieties have special characteristics that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Rice export from India constitutes the major share of Basmati rice. Nearly two-third of Basmati rice produced in India is exported. Basmati rice is the leading aromatic fine quality rice of the world trade and it fetches good export price in the international markets. Infact, Basmati rice is a gift from "Mother Nature" to the Indian sub-continent and grows in the Indo-Gangatic plains only. Basmati rice being novel product is characterized by its unique grain size, aroma and cooking qualities. Being high value product, it has got good export demand. Hence, the export has been very high and exports have been steadily growing. During the year 2000-01, Basmati rice export touched an all time high record figure of 8.52 lakh mt (provisional) showing on increase of 62.9% over 1996-97.

The percentage share of export value of Basmati rice in the food grains export earnings was 76.10 per cent during 1993-94. About 60-70 per cent of the total Basmati production in the country exported every year to the international market mainly Saudi-Arabia, U.A.E, Kuwait, Oman, Russia, U.K and U.S.A. During 1997-98, India exported around 581791.0 metric tones of Basmati rice. There is vast scope for further expansion of Basmati rice export, provided we could supply to farmers dwarf high yielding Basmati varieties along with appropriate production technologies. Hence, to fill this gap between demand and supply, the present investigation will be carried out for achieving this by selecting suitable aromatic cultivar and appropriate time of transplanting.

Future prospects of aromatic rice
For centuries Basmati rice has been the food of choice for rich and enlightened people. Awareness about the unique cooking and eating qualities of Basmati rice is increasing. Every year the domestic and the international demands are on the increase. In India Basmati cultivation is spreading to neighboring districts of Basmati growing states. Modern rice mills with complete automation have further improved the physical quality of Basmati rice. Now, it is possible to separate well developed, high density kernel of uniform size and colour with desired degree of milling. Scientific packing and transportation make it possible to deliver the best product without any deterioration in quality or colour anywhere in the world. Since present day varieties require less input, there is a wave to grow these varieties organically. Basmati rice grown organically has tremendous potential in domestic and international market. Unique climatic conditions available in North West India for growing best quality Basmati rice are unparallel in the world. If high yielding, disease and pest resistant varieties of identical grain and cooking quality are made available, the area under Basmati rice will defiantly increase.

Preference for quality rice has expanded from Southeast Asia to Europe, Africa and United States of America. Over the past few years, there has been a remarkable increase in India’s foreign exchange earning from export of Basmati rice. India has made a definite dent in the global rice trade and, in the coming years it will get a leading slot in the international rice trade.

File Courtesy: 
Mohammad Shamim, K.K. Singh, B.Gangwar, Sunil Kumar and Vinay Prasad Mandal
19
Jul

Future prospects of aromatic rice

For centuries Basmati rice has been the food of choice for rich and enlightened people. Awareness about the unique cooking and eating qualities of Basmati rice is increasing. Every year the domestic and the international demands are on the increase. In India Basmati cultivation is spreading to neighboring districts of Basmati growing states.

Modern rice mills with complete automation have further improved the physical quality of Basmati rice. Now, it is possible to separate well developed, high density kernel of uniform size and colour with desired degree of milling. Scientific packing and transportation make it possible to deliver the best product without any deterioration in quality or colour anywhere in the world.  Since present day varieties require less input, there is a wave to grow these varieties organically. 

Basmati rice grown organically has tremendous potential in domestic and international market. Unique climatic conditions available in North West India for growing best quality Basmati rice are unparallel in the world. If high yielding, disease and pest resistant varieties of identical grain and cooking quality are made available, the area under Basmati rice will defiantly increase. 
 

Preference for quality rice has expanded from Southeast Asia to Europe, Africa and United States of America. Over the past few years, there has been a remarkable increase in India’s foreign exchange earning from export of Basmati rice. India has made a definite dent in the global rice trade and, in the coming years it will get a leading slot in the international rice trade.
 

File Courtesy: 
Mohammad Shamim, K.K. Singh, B.Gangwar, Sunil Kumar and Vinay Prasad Mandal
19
Jul

Role of aromatic rice in the export earnings

India is one of the important countries in the world in export of rice. India's exports are expected to go up further during current financial year. Hence, Indian rice exports are set to reach second place in the world markets after Thailand edging out Vietnam in the process as per the report of the Food and Agricultural Organisation. Basmati export market is a lucrative area. Though India and Pakistan enjoy to have the maximum shares in this market, competitors from others countries are already coming up.

Basmati varieties have special characteristics that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Rice export from India constitutes the major share of Basmati rice. Nearly two-third of Basmati rice produced in India is exported. Basmati rice is the leading aromatic fine quality rice of the world trade and it fetches good export price in the international markets. Infact, Basmati rice is a gift from "Mother Nature" to the Indian sub-continent and grows in the Indo-Gangatic plains only. Basmati rice being novel product is characterized by its unique grain size, aroma and cooking qualities. Being high value product, it has got good export demand. Hence, the export has been very high and exports have been steadily growing. During the year 2000-01, Basmati rice export touched an all time high record figure of 8.52 lakh mt (provisional) showing on increase of 62.9% over 1996-97. 

The percentage share of export value of Basmati rice in the food grains export earnings was 76.10 per cent during 1993-94. About 60-70 per cent of the total Basmati production in the country exported every year to the international market mainly Saudi-Arabia, U.A.E, Kuwait, Oman, Russia, U.K and U.S.A. During 1997-98, India exported around 581791.0 metric tones of Basmati rice. There is vast scope for further expansion of Basmati rice export, provided we could supply to farmers dwarf high yielding Basmati varieties along with appropriate production technologies. Hence, to fill this gap between demand and supply, the present investigation will be carried out for achieving this by selecting suitable aromatic cultivar and appropriate time of transplanting. 
 
Source: 
Mohammad Shamim, K.K. Singh, B.Gangwar, Sunil Kumar and Vinay Prasad Mandal
Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research, Modipuram-250110

File Courtesy: 
Dr. Mohammad Shamim, Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research, Modipuram-250110
19
Jul

Status of rice production and its requirement by 2030

The rice is a staple food and continuous supply is to be maintained to the consumers. To ensure regular supply of the food grain proper steps are required to be taken in advance. If supply is not maintained uninterrupted than there are chances of a large number of human population drowning in perpetual hunger. About 1 billion households depend on rice cultivation for employment and their main source of livelihood. As the rice consuming population continues to grow, and the land and water resources needed for rice production diminish, we may face a potential crisis. World rice production has been less than rice consumption since 2000. This insufficiency has been addressed by drawing on rice from buffer stock. In this context, advances in science and technology, as well as rice research, are increasingly critical to enhance rice production and sustainable agricultural development. Ensuring an increase in sustainable rice production will require innovation and cooperation within the scientific community, as well as commitment and shared responsibility among all stakeholders.

Paddy rice and wheat could have an equivalent share in global cereals production till 2030. Paddy rice and wheat is estimated to account for 2/3 of the cereals production. Both paddy rice and wheat should be the dominant cereal food in the world before 2030. Per capita cereals production for developed countries, wheat would amount to 1/3 of cereals and paddy rice has a very low proportion, which demonstrates that wheat should be the dominant cereal crop in these countries. Unlike developed countries, paddy rice is expected to be the dominant cereal crop (1/2) and wheat is just 1/2 of paddy rice in developing countries per capita production.
 
Paddy rice yield would increase by 2030 to 24.7 to 35.5% and reach 5.28 to 5.73 metric tones/hectare (mt ha-1). Paddy rice production in developing countries is estimated to grow at annual rate of 9, 476, 885 mt, much higher than developed countries (74, 027 mt yr-1). Till 2030 the production in developing countries is expected to significantly raise 30.9 to 41.8% against the probable increase of 7.6 to 21.0% in developed countries. Yield increase in developing countries (25.6 to 36.9%) may also be higher than developed countries (4.0 to 23.1%). With a projected production of 5.9 to 7.7 mt, Asia is forecasted to be still the major region for paddy rice production in the world. By 2030 Asia’s paddy rice yield is estimated to increase 11.7 to 23.4% and reach 4.59 to 5.08 mt ha-1. On the other hand, Europe (79.0 to 139.2 kg ha-1 yr-1), Oceania (69.3 to 106.7 kg ha-1 yr-1) and North & Central America (65.8 to 74.0 kg ha-1 yr-1) are estimated to have higher annual rates in paddy rice yield, and the production in these regions is expected to reach 7.6 to 9.7 mt, 8.8 to 12.4 mt and 7.4  to 8.2 mt respectively by 2030.
 
Per capita cereals production of the world is estimated to probably increase 4.5% (1.3 to 10.2%) and reach 375.3 kg yr-1 by 2030. Per capita production in developed countries (7.9 to 39.5%) may have a much higher level than developing countries (0.2 to 7.7%) and is projected to be three times of the later (899.1 kgyr-1 vs. 273.8 kg yr-1) till 2030. Oceania (955.2 kg yr-1) and North & Central America (833.6 kg yr-1) may have the greatest per capita cereals production, while per capita production in Caribbean (62.1 kg yr-1) and Africa (122.2 kg yr-1) should be lower by 2030. Asia is forecasted to be the largest region in cereals production but per capita production in this region (233.3 kg yr-1) may still be lower.
 
India is essentially an agricultural country with over three-fourths of the population living in rural areas and dependent on agriculture related occupations. Pre-Independent India was badly hurt by frequent famines and drought. The eminent economist Amartya Sen owes his major works on hunger to the devastations of the great Bengal famine which had made deep impressions on him when he was still a child. If India today is self sufficient in food, it is in no small measure due to indigenous agricultural research. Of course, India still has a long way to go. The population is increasing; the land area under cultivation is decreasing and excessive use of chemical fertilisers, pesticides and insecticides are adversely affecting the environment. Far more needs to be produced than now, and produced in a much safer way. These are enough challenges to keep our agricultural research establishment busy. Modern day rice variety have yield potentials much greater than their traditional predecessors, a characteristics that has greatly increased rice production worldwide.
Rice production increased with time, this might be due to technological advances and more efficient use of inputs coupled with increased area under cultivation. Still there are few downfalls which clearly states that prevailing weather has significant effect on yield of rice. Rice production may change as a result of global warming through the CO2 increase, temperature rise and change in precipitation. Thus, policymakers require reliable projections of the regional impacts on the production in order to consider mitigation and adaptation techniques. Projections of regional climate change and impact on rice production are important in relation to food security for these areas, as stated by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in its Third Assessment Report.
 
Source: 
Mohammad Shamim, K.K. Singh, B.Gangwar, Sunil Kumar and Vinay Prasad Mandal
Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research, Modipuram-250110
 

File Courtesy: 
Dr. Mohammad Shamim, Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research, Modipuram-250110
19
Jul

Aromatic rice growing regions

Basmati rices have been traditionally cultivated in northern India, confined mainly to Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and adjoining districts of Rajasthan. It is said that Basmati grows best and produces best quality grains under warm, humid, valley like conditions. Experience has also shown that when true Basmati varieties are cultivated outside these traditional Basmati areas, the grains do not have the same quality. During vegetative period high humidity (70 to 80%) and a temperature ranges of 25 to 35°C are favourable. From flowering onwards bright and clear sunny day with a temperature range of 25 to 32°C, comparatively cooler night (20 to 25°C) moderate humidity and gentle wind velocity at the time of flowering and maturity are considered necessary for proper grain and aroma development. The area under Basmati rice cultivation in India is 1 M ha and in Pakistan is 0.75 M ha. In India highest area under Basmati rice is in Uttar Pradesh (0.4 M ha) followed by Haryana (0.25 M ha), Uttranchal (0.10 M ha), Punjab (0.10 M ha), Jammu & Kashmir (0.05 M ha) and Rajasthan (0.05 M ha) documented by Sharma and Nayak (2005).

Basmati rice has been in cultivation for generations in North Western India confined mainly to Punjab, Haryana, Western U.P. and adjoining district of Rajasthan.

Introduction of high yielding varieties further contributed to the reduction in acreage during the early seventies. However, with the establishment of modern mills in the early eighties and on increase in the export demand, there has been continuous increase in the area under Basmati rice cultivation. At present, India produces about 1.2 Mt (rough rice basis) with an average of 1.5 to 1.8 t ha-1 from 0.7 to 0.8 M ha which is 1.6 to 1.9 per cent as compared to the area under non-Basmati rice.

 
Source: 
Mohammad Shamim, K.K. Singh, B.Gangwar, Sunil Kumar and Vinay Prasad Mandal
Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research, Modipuram-250110
 

File Courtesy: 
Dr. Mohammad Shamim, Project Directorate for Farming Systems Research, Modipuram-250110
Syndicate content
Copy rights | Disclaimer | RKMP Policies