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Crop Protection

Crop Protection
7
Feb

Control of moths in stored grains

The Angoumois grain moth is the most serious pest injurious to rice, both in the field and storage.

This moth also attacks other cereals like maize, wheat and sorghum.

The infestation may reach serious levels before the grains are transported to the storage godowns resulting in around 25 per cent loss in weight and seed viability.

Internal pest

The larva is an internal borer of the whole grain, feeding on the starchy part. Severely infested material emits an unpleasant smell and looks unhealthy in appearance.

Grains are often covered with scales shed by the moths. The grains are practically hollow and filled with larval excreta and other refuse making it unfit for consumption.

The adult is a small, straw coloured moth. The female can lay an average of 150 eggs on unhusked paddy grains.

They hatch in a week’s period. Newly hatched caterpillar is yellowish white in colour with a brown head capsule. It soon bores into the grain and feeds on its contents.

Larval stage lasts for about three weeks. Before pupation, the larva constructs a silken cocoon in the cavity made during feeding and turns into reddish brown pupa.

After a period of 4-7 days, the adult emerges. Entire life cycle is completed in 30-35 days.

Several generations are completed in a year. Adults are short-lived and can be seen flying about in large numbers in storage bags and on the surface of grains.

Management

— Drying the grains under sun for three days to reduce moisture content below 12 per cent is suggested.

— The jute bags to be used for storing grains have to be dipped in insecticidal solution of fenitrothion 50EC at 5ml/20 liters of water.

— Application of dichlorvos (DDVP) 76SC is recommended on the surface of stored jute bags by dissolving 7ml/lit. of water and the spray solution is sprayed at three lit/100 sq.m.

— Male moths can also be caught in sticky traps baited with female sex pheromone.

Reference :

(J. Jayaraj, Prof and R.K. Murali Baskaran, Professor and Head, Dept. of Agriculture Entomology, Agricultural College and Research Institute, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Madurai 625 104, email: muralibaskaran2007@rediffmail.com, mobile: 9655677669.)

File Courtesy: 
http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/agriculture/control-of-moths-in-stored-grains/article4386889.ece
15
May

Pink stem borer (PSB)

Pink stem borer (PSB), Sesamia inferens (Walker)

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 59/2011, Rice stem borers in India: species composition and distribution
15
May

Gold fringed borer

Gold fringed borer (GFB), Chilo auricilius (Dudgeon)

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 59/2011, Rice stem borers in India: species composition and distribution
15
May

Dark headed borer

Dark headed borer (DHB), Chilo poly chrysus(Meyrick)

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 59/2011, Rice stem borers in India: species composition and distribution
15
May

Striped stem borer

Striped stem borer (SSB), Chilo suppressalis (Walker)

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 59/2011, Rice stem borers in India: species composition and distribution
14
May

White stem borer

 1.   White stem borer (WSB)

There is no clarity regarding the taxonomic identity of the white stem borer species reported on rice in India. Two species reported in the literature relevant to rice are described below:
 
a.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 59/2011, Rice stem borers in India: species composition and distribution
14
May

Yellow stem borer

Yellow stem borer (YSB), Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker)

 
Distribution: This species is prevalent in many states across the country.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Technical Bulletin No. 59/2011, Rice stem borers in India: species composition and distribution
8
May

Chemical control of Rice Tungro Virus vector

The spread of rice tungro disease can be checked indirectly by controlling the vector by suitable pesticide application. As the plants are more vulnerable to RTV infection during early stages of growth, chemical protection of the nursery effectively reduces green leafhopper population and thereby minimises the build up of virus inoculum as well as the pace of transmission.

Nursery Protection

File Courtesy: 
Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad
8
May

Use of resistant variety for RTV

Tungro virus can not be directly controlled by applying any chemical. The best method of preventing tungro is to grow resistant varieties. A variety may be resistant to virus or the insect vector or to both virus and insect vector.
VIKRAMARYA, developed at Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad is the resistant variety now available for general cultivation. Other promising resistant medium duration cultures include: IET 9994, IET 8560 and IET 8565 with slender grains and IET 8902 with long bold grains.

File Courtesy: 
Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad
Photo Courtesy: 
Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad
8
May

Mode of transmission of RTV

When young (nymphs) and adult green leafhoppers feed on diseased plants, virus particles get attached to mouth parts (stylets). As these insects fly and feed on other plants, the virus particles from the stylets get introduced into healthy plants. The insects pick up virus particles within 5 minutes of feeding and can transmit these particles to other healthy plants. The green leafhoppers can not retain virus for a long time. They acquire virus again through repeated feedings. Generally, 8 -10 days after such an introduction of virus in plants, tungro virus disease symptoms appear.

File Courtesy: 
Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad
Photo Courtesy: 
Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad
8
May

Symptoms of Rice Tungro Virus (RTV)

RTV can appear at any time on rice right from seedling stage. The extent of crop damage and yield loss depends on the growth stage at the time of RTV infection.

File Courtesy: 
Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad
Photo Courtesy: 
Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad
8
May

Tungro Disease in Rice

Rice Tungro Virus (RTV) is a destructive disease of rice. Incidence of RTV in India was first observed at West Bengal in 1966 and two years later, appeared extensively in eastern Uttar Pradesh and northern Bihar inflicting heavy crop losses. Subsequently, RTV has been observed occasionally in parts of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Kerala, Pondichery, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal. In Andhra Pradesh, incidence of RTV has been recorded often at low to moderate severity since 1976.

File Courtesy: 
Directorate of Rice Research, Hyderabad
27
Aug

Other novel pest control techniques (Insect Sex Pheromones)

1. Semio-chemicals are chemicals involved in communication

File Courtesy: 
Technical Bulletin No. 10, Integrated Pest Management in Rainfed Rice Production Systems, Directorate of Rice Research.
27
Aug

Biological Control of Pests in Rice

1. Exploitation of biological agents such as parasites,

predators and pathogens is a key component of rice IPM and can be a promising alternative to ecologically disruptive chemical control measures.

2. Inundative or inoculative releases of the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum ashmead against yellow stem borer and T. chilonis Ishii against leaf folder are effective and economical.

File Courtesy: 
Technical Bulletin No. 10, Integrated Pest Management in Rainfed Rice Production Systems, Directorate of Rice Research.
26
Aug

Chemical Control

1. Despite the drawbacks involved in insecticide

usage in rainfed rice systems, the farmers readily use pesticides in times of sudden pest outbreaks. 

2. During such times, there is a need to choose the right insecticide formulation and dose as well as suitable application technique based on pest biology and crop phenology. 

File Courtesy: 
Technical Bulletin No. 10, Integrated Pest Management in Rainfed Rice Production Systems, Directorate of Rice Research.
26
Aug

Appropriate cultural methods

Cultural practices are normal agronomic practices

followed for increasing crop productivity and their appropriate manipulation can effectively prevent the insect pest populations from causing losses to the crop.

File Courtesy: 
Technical Bulletin No. 10, Integrated Pest Management in Rainfed Rice Production Systems, Directorate of Rice Research.
26
Aug

Growing resistant varieties

1. Resistant cultivars are the most effective,

economical and practical means of encountering the pest problems and compatible with all components.

2.  In India, among the 710 commercial rice varieties released, 51 varieties are resistant to gall midge, 25 to brown planthopper, 3 to stem borer and green leafhopper and whitebacked planthopper. 

File Courtesy: 
Technical Bulletin No. 10, Integrated Pest Management in Rainfed Rice Production Systems, Directorate of Rice Research.
26
Aug

Components of rice IPM

Components of rice IPM include

I. Growing resistant varieties.

II. Growing resistant varieties.

III. Chemical Control

IV. Biological Control

V. Other novel pest control techniques (Insect Sex Pheromones)

 

File Courtesy: 
Technical Bulletin No. 10, Integrated Pest Management in Rainfed Rice Production Systems, Directorate of Rice Research.
26
Aug

Integrated Pest Management

1. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the most appropriate approach to obtain sustainable rice yield with least damage to the environment. 

2.  Integrated pest management in the simplest terms is referred to as “a broad ecological strategy combining several components such as insect resistant rice varieties, cultural, chemical and biological control methods for the management of insect pest populations below the levels at which they cause economic injury to the rice crop.

File Courtesy: 
Technical Bulletin No. 10, Integrated Pest Management in Rainfed Rice Production Systems, Directorate of Rice Research.
29
Jul

Description of Amauromorpha accepta metathoracica

Economic importance: Larval parasitoid.
Hosts: Yellow and white stem borer larvae.
Description
1. This larval parasitoid is a medium-sized ichneumon, red and black. Its abdominal segment I is black and reddish apico-laterally, whereas abdominal segments II to III are entirely black. Abdominal segment VII has a white apico-median transverse band. The front margin of the front wing is solid.
2. Two cross veins or recurrent veins in the front wings and an elongated median cell reaching the base of the marginal vein in the hind wings are evident.
Biology and ecology

File Courtesy: 
file:///G:/Beneficials/Scientific_name_Amauromorpha_accepta_metathoracica_Ashmead_8.htm
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