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Direct Seeding

Direct Seeding
18
Jul

Land preparation, soil moisture and Seed depth in Direct Seeded Rice

 

Plow the fields during summer to control emerging weeds
Leveling the fields well facilitates uniform irrigation and better germination
Optimum depth of seed:2-3 cm. The seed should be covered by soil for proper

File Courtesy: 
Dr Rajeew Kumar, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-Uttrakhand
18
Jul

Direct Seeded Rice

Rice can be directly seeded either through dry or wet (pregerminated) seeding.

Dry seeding of rice can be done by drilling the seed into a fine seedbed at a depth of 2-3 centimeters.

Wet seeding requires leveled fields to be harrowed and then flooded (puddling). The field is left for 12-24 hours after puddling, then germinated seeds (48-72 hours) are sown using a drum seeder.

Seed can be broadcast for either dry or wet seeding, but manual weeding is more difficult. Indeed, weed management is a critical factor in direct seeding.

Timely application of herbicides (timing is dependent on the method of seeding) and one or two hand weedings provide effective control.

 
File Courtesy: 
Dr Rajeew Kumar, G.B.Pant University of Agriculture & Technology, Pantnagar-Uttrakhand
25
Jun

Limitations of wet direct seeding

1. Good land preparation, levelling and water management are needed for uniform crop establishment.

2. Weeds are very serious in dry seeding and serious in wet seeding.

3. Snails (in wet seeded fields), and rats and birds can severely reduce plant stands.

4. Heavy rainfall at the time of crop establishment can result in crop establishment failure (especially in heavier clay soils), and if water sits over seed still germinating below the soil.

5. Longer occupation of main field by 5-15 days, compared to transplanted rice.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/factsheetsPDFs/Crop_Establishment/fs_dryDirectSeeding.pdf
25
Jun

Procedure for wet direct seeding

1. Ensure the field is well levelled, well puddled and weed free.

2. 2-5 days after the final puddling, the soil has settled to be solid enough to hold seed on or near the surface and weeds have not yet established.

3. In drained fields, small outlets can be made across the field a couple of days after puddling to further help drain the field and avoid snail damage and seed emergence problems in areas with standing water.

4. Pre-germinate the seed (soak for 24 hours in water, cover and drain for 24 hours). In this time the seedling root will emerge 2-3mm.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/factsheetsPDFs/Crop_Establishment/fs_wetDirectSeeding.pdf
25
Jun

Why Use Wet Direct Seeding?

1. Easier (less drudgery) and more timely crop establishment.

2. Reduced labour costs for crop establishment.

3. Possible savings in water use.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri .org/factsheetsPDFs/Crop_Es tablishment/fs_wetDirectSeeding.pdf
25
Jun

Wet Direct Seeding

1. In wet direct seeding, seed is normally pre-germinated prior to broadcasting onto recently drained, well-puddled seedbeds or into pre-standing water in the fields.

2. Wet direct seeding more commonly used in irrigated areas.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/factsheetsPDFs/Crop_Establishment/ fs_wetDirectSeeding.pdf
25
Jun

Dry Direct Seeding Limitations

1. Good land preparation, levelling and water management are needed for uniform crop establishment. Weeds are a major problem and their control is critical to get high yield.

2. Problems of rats, birds, mole crickets, ants and Nematodes can also be a problem especially in non-flooded fields.

3. Heavy rainfall at the time of crop establishment can result in crop establishment failure (especially in heavier clay soils) and if water sits over seed still germinating below the soil.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/factsheetsPDFs/Crop_Establishment/fs_dryDirectSeeding.pdf
25
Jun

Dry Direct Seeding in irrigated areas

1. Use less - 60-80 kg - of good seed of a variety suited for direct seeding. Fertilizer can be added as basal.
2. Irrigate after sowing (if no rain). Let the water drain before flash flooding after 2-3 days to keep seed moist and to reduce soil crusting (this is especially important in the dry season).
3. If water is drained from the fields after broadcasting, it is re-introduced 10 to 15 days after the crop is established.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/factsheetsPDFs/Crop_Establishment/fs_dryDirectSeeding.pdf
25
Jun

Dry Direct Seeding in rainfed systems

1. Small outlets can be made across the field to help drain the field and avoid snail damage and seed emergence problems in areas where water may stand.

2. Use sufficient seed of a variety suited for direct seeding to achieve a plant population of 100-150 plants/m2. This will usually require around 120-150 kg seed/ha. Farmers often use more seed (e.g., up to 150-200 kg/ha) because of poor field levelling, poor seed and seed loses to birds and rats.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/factsheetsPDFs/Crop_Establishment/fs_dryDirectSeeding.pdf
25
Jun

Dry Direct Seeding in rainfed Rice ecosystems

1. Small outlets can be made across the field to help drain the field and avoid snail damage and seed emergence problems in areas where water may stand.

2. Use sufficient seed of a variety suited for direct seeding to achieve a plant population of 100-150 plants/m2. This will usually require around 120-150 kg seed/ha. Farmers often use more seed (e.g., up to 150-200 kg/ha) because of poor field levelling, poor seed and seed loses to birds and rats.

File Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/factsheetsPDFs/Crop_Establishment/fs_dryDirectSeeding.pdf
25
Jun

Why use Dry Direct Seeding?

1. Transplanted rice has deleterious effects on the soil environment for the succeeding rice and other upland crops. Direct seeded rice which removes puddling and drudgery of transplanting.

2. The young rice seedlings provides an option to resolve the adaphic conflict and enhance the sustainability of cropping system.

3. Puddling requires lots of scarce water at a time when there is little water in the reservoirs, destroys soil structure and adversely affects soil productivity.

File Courtesy: 
http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/?q=content/direct-seeded-rice
25
Jun

Methods of Direct Seed Seeding

1. Methods of Seed Sowing include: 

a. Dry direct seeding

b. Wet Direct Seeding.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Training Manual, August 2000, Dr. S.V. Subbaiah, Dr. V. Balasubramanian
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
25
Jun

Dry Direct Seeding

 

1. Direct sowing of rice is an ancient practice of rice cultivation in India, particularly in rainfed areas, where farmers totally eliminate the seedling preparation in nursery and transplanting.

2. In rainfed and deepwater ecosystems, dry seed is manually broadcast onto the soil surface and then incorporated either by ploughing or by harrowing while the soil is still dry.

File Courtesy: 
DRR Training Manual, August 2000, Dr. S.V. Subbaiah, Dr. V. Balasubramanian
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
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