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Bunt

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1. In this disease, a few grains in an ear are affected, the infection being either partly or wholly. The symptoms appear first as minute black Streaks bursting through the glumes at the ripening.
2. If the infected grain is crushed between the fmgers, a black powdery mass of spores emerges. The causal organism of the disease is Tilletia barclayana.
3. The is that develops inside the grain is filled with spores, which are spherical and dark, with a spiny epispore. The spore germinates and produces sporadic. These produce secondary sporadics in large numbers.
4. The teliospores survive in the soil or seed and remain viable for next season. High doses of nitrogen fertilizers make the plant susceptible to the disease.
5. Early maturing varieties suffer more than the late maturing ones. Warm temperature (20-30DC) and high relative humidity (8S% and above) or intermittent rain at the time of ear emergence favours the disease development.

The disease control measures include
• Field sanitation
• Crop rotation
• Use of resistant varieties

File Courtesy: 
ICAR NEH, Umiam
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