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1. These soils occur in Deccan trap lime stone regions, in parts of Gulbarga, Bijapur and Belgaum districts and considerable areas in parts of Raichur, Bellary, Dharwad, Chitradurga, and Mysore districts.
2. These are very deep (more than 90 cm), dark brown, dark greyish brown to very dark grey or black in colour. The texture is usually clayey throughout the profile.
3. These are calcareous and are weakly to strongly alkaline, highly cracking montmorillonitic clayey soils. These are highly moisture retentive and moderately well drained to imperfectly drained with low to very low permeability.
4. A loose, crumb to granular surface mulch, gilgai micro relief, prominent intersecting slickensides and typical sub-angular to angular blocky structure are common in these soils. These soils are classified under the order Vertisols with sub-order Usterts.
5. These soils are fertile and generally produce good yields when moisture is not a limiting factor but are slight to moderately susceptible to erosion.
6. Adequate soil and water conservation measures, appropriate provision of drainage facilities especially in the low lands and adoption of package of practices are essential to obtain sustained high yields under rainfed cultivation.
7. Indiscriminate use of water on these soils could spoil the soil structure and lead to salinity and water logging problems.