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Indigenous Cultural Practice

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1. The practice of alternate wetting and drying of soil is followed in Tamil Nadu at it results in a good rice crop.
Reported by P.S.K. Jeyaraj(2003)

2.  Completing transplanting by August second week is practiced  by the farmers of Telengana region of Andhra Pradesh  in order to get good harvest.
Reported by Chitttrai selvan and K.V. Raman (1990)

3. A mixture of coconut water and buttermilk is used to increase the number of flowers in paddy in Tamil nadu.  A mixture of 5 liters of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water, and 5 liters of  buttermilk is  kept in a mudp pot.  This pot is buried in the soil for 5-7 days,  after that  one liter of solution   is mixed with 10 liters water to spray on the crop,  which helps to increase number of flowers in the crop.
Reported by C.Bhakkiyanadhan(1995)

4.  Sarde is a practice of cultivating paddy in rainy (kharif) season under rainfed conditions. Any variety can be taken for cultivation. In North Goa, sprouted seeds are broadcasted in high land and in low land transplanting is done. After the harvest of paddy, legumes and vegetables are cultivated on a large scale.
 Reported by Keshav Majik(2004)

5. The practice of growing paddy near the riverbed is called puran. It is common and special in North Goa, where small and marginal farmers go for this type of cultivation. At the foothills of Sahayadri ghats (a part of western ghats), Mhadie river flows. People living in the region divert the flow of water to a small patch and sow paddy in late winter (rabi) season and harvest by April end. Ploughing and land preparation are done manually. This practice is otherwise called silt cultivation because it is grown on the river bed after removal of pebbles.
Reported by Rupesh D. Gauns,Ranewada,Porye Sanquelm,Sattari(2004)

6.  In Andhra Pradesh the transplanting is done along with wind direction and not against  the  wind direction.
Reported by K. Lakshmana(2003)

7.  During dry paddy cultivation, ploughing is practiced   once after sowing  as it  gives  better yields. (Care is to be taken so that crop is not damaged).
 Reported by Directorate of Extension IGKVV (2003)

8.  ‘Katte seed’  (Sesbania Sp.) is sown in field and incorporated in paddy field  at the time of puddling  in Andhra Pradesh.
Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)

9.  Farmers remove rogue plants at least 20 days before harvesting in order to avoid  admixtures.  Farmers claim that rogue plants mature first  and their culms  colour  (light yellow to pink) is found to differ during weeding  and harvesting periods. Farmers practice of rouging   is scientifically rational and plant protectionists recognize that this technique  helps in reducing  pathogens  and insect pests.
 Reported by K. Lakshmana (2003)

10.  In the low land areas where water logging  is the common problem (Dhari soil), to avoid the impact   of heavy rains during   July  and August, farmers broadcast  a variety of rice seeds  possessing  early to medium maturing  characteristics in dryland and pulverized soil. Generally planking is avoided  using this method. After the on-set of the first monsoon, the soil receiving the first precipitation drop and the seeds  get germinated. Before the logging of the water the crop is ready for harvest (70 days after sowing). This practice is recognized as rational  by the agronomist  and soil scientist  for reasons  of energy, time and moisture  conservation  as well as labor saving. This is  practiced in Bastar  district of  Madhya  Pradesh.
Reported by Ranjay. K. Singh (2003)

11.  In the Lahee method of growing the rice crop, the germinated seeds are broadcasted in the well pulverized moist and puddled soil. This practice is done between 10th June to 15th July  mainly  in   Tikara soils,  where  water runoff is a major problem. Before broadcasting about 15 kgs rice seeds are soaked in the water and kept over two days for germination.
Reported by  Ranjay K. Singh (2003)

12.  In the Southern part of Bastar district, the Halba  tribes  cover  the paddy seeds  by the moist  jute bags, while in the Northern  part of the district  the Gond tribe  cover seeds    by using  the green leaves of saaz tree (Terminallia chibula). The farmers perceive  that the leaves act as a catalyst agent  for rapid  germination of rice  seed  and increase  percentage of germination.
 Reported by Ranjay K. Singh(2003)

13.  Farmers of Khijuria village  of Dumka district  of Jharkhand make  use  of deep  lowlands through   cultivation of suitable variety. In this practice, wet seeding  is done  after  water recession, because farmers do not  wait for  complete  drying  of fields.  Due to this  practice 100% water logged  lands  are utilized. This is  in practice  for last several years by farmers having  this type of land.
Reported by Seemavati Singh(2003)

14.  To prevent  lodging  in rice crop at maturity in water logging conditions.Farmers in Khalisha and Udwaninagar villager of Bhojpur  district of Bihar  use this practice. The practice  is used  for preventing  lodging  in rice crop during maturity period in water logged condition. The upper portion of the rice plants  is cut  with the help of  sickle. after 2 months  of transplanting Excess growth of rice plant  is  checked  due to pruning. Lower part of the plant  becomes strong. This is practiced  for  the last several years by all farmers in the  village.
Reported by Viswesh  Kumar(2003)

15. For sowing in over saturated or marshy land situation, rice seeds are  soaked  in water  till they sprout. Then the sprouted seeds  are broadcasted  in marshy lands. This practice is helpful for rice cultivation in marshy  lands  where  ploughing  is not possible.   This practice  is followed  in Khalisha Bakri and Kurwan villages of Udwantnagar in Bhojpur district of Bihar. It is followed in about 90% of   marshy land  and water logged lands and yield of rice is comparatively  (20 to 30%) more than  that in transplanted rice. Cost benefit  ratio is 1:6 approximately.
 Reported by  Ranjay K. Singh (2000)

16.    Bueshening operation followed by gap filling  and weeding  in rice is practiced by small  farmers of Chhattisgarh region. The direct seeding of rice with beushening operation gave  sustainable yield when compared to transplanted rice under rainfed conditions. Normal transplanting requires stable rainfall  for its cultivation.  Rainfall analysis  had  shown that  there was no  stable  rainfall  during July  in Chhattisgarh. Farmers of Chhattisgrah  region have  adopted  this practice  to overcome  the drought problem since many years.
Reported by Directorate of Extension IGKVV (2003)

17.  Integrated farming system  with paddy and fish culture.Integrated farming system of paddy and fish is practiced in region of Kuttanad in Kerala. Kuttanad region is  below sea level  and remains water logged throughout the year. Raised bunds are constructed  on the sides of paddy field. Coconut and pineapple are grown on the bunds. Under such geographic condition, paddy is raised as the main crop in rabi season. Sowing is done  by direct  seeding  and harvesting  is done  by cutting the panicle.  After cutting, the remaining  part of the plants  are left  in the field. Later on, water is flooded in the field to moderate level  and fingerlings  of different  species of fish  are released  in the  field.  These   fishes  feed  on the vegetative  contents  of the left over paddy plants  and weeds. Poultry and pig rearing  are  done  on the raised  platforms  of the paddy field, so that  castings   fall  directly  into the water. After, harvest of fish, water is drained from the field. Due to exhaustive feeding by fish, the  entire paddy field  becomes  free of weeds with a thick layer of mud  that is rich in organic matter and plant nutrients.
Reported by Krishnan Kutty (2003)

18.  Under water stress condition spraying one  teepol  of potash  mixed with 10 liters of water  at panicle  initiation stage increases productivity of paddy.This is practiced by the rice farmers in Tamil Nadu.
Reported by  K. Thirunavukarasu(2003)

19.  Chopped  green leaves  of 150 250 kgs of basaka, neem,   custard apple, kuruchi and  nisinda are  mixed  in puddl  field  before  transplanting rice to increase  the nitrogen use  efficiency  of applied  fertilizers and reduce  the infestation  of insect pests, pathogens and weeds.
Reported by Dulal Chandra Manna, Rabindra KVK (2003)

File Courtesy: 
Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Rice Cultivation. P. Muthuraman and Shaik. N. Meera
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