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1. The practice of alternate wetting and drying of soil is followed in Tamil Nadu at it results in a good rice crop.
Reported by P.S.K. Jeyaraj(2003)
2. Completing transplanting by August second week is practiced by the farmers of Telengana region of Andhra Pradesh in order to get good harvest.
Reported by Chitttrai selvan and K.V. Raman (1990)
3. A mixture of coconut water and buttermilk is used to increase the number of flowers in paddy in Tamil nadu. A mixture of 5 liters of coconut (Cocos nucifera) water, and 5 liters of buttermilk is kept in a mudp pot. This pot is buried in the soil for 5-7 days, after that one liter of solution is mixed with 10 liters water to spray on the crop, which helps to increase number of flowers in the crop.
Reported by C.Bhakkiyanadhan(1995)
4. Sarde is a practice of cultivating paddy in rainy (kharif) season under rainfed conditions. Any variety can be taken for cultivation. In North Goa, sprouted seeds are broadcasted in high land and in low land transplanting is done. After the harvest of paddy, legumes and vegetables are cultivated on a large scale.
Reported by Keshav Majik(2004)
5. The practice of growing paddy near the riverbed is called puran. It is common and special in North Goa, where small and marginal farmers go for this type of cultivation. At the foothills of Sahayadri ghats (a part of western ghats), Mhadie river flows. People living in the region divert the flow of water to a small patch and sow paddy in late winter (rabi) season and harvest by April end. Ploughing and land preparation are done manually. This practice is otherwise called silt cultivation because it is grown on the river bed after removal of pebbles.
Reported by Rupesh D. Gauns,Ranewada,Porye Sanquelm,Sattari(2004)
6. In Andhra Pradesh the transplanting is done along with wind direction and not against the wind direction.
Reported by K. Lakshmana(2003)
7. During dry paddy cultivation, ploughing is practiced once after sowing as it gives better yields. (Care is to be taken so that crop is not damaged).
Reported by Directorate of Extension IGKVV (2003)
8. ‘Katte seed’ (Sesbania Sp.) is sown in field and incorporated in paddy field at the time of puddling in Andhra Pradesh.
Reported by K. Lakshmana(2003)
9. Farmers remove rogue plants at least 20 days before harvesting in order to avoid admixtures. Farmers claim that rogue plants mature first and their culms colour (light yellow to pink) is found to differ during weeding and harvesting periods. Farmers practice of rouging is scientifically rational and plant protectionists recognize that this technique helps in reducing pathogens and insect pests.
Reported by K. Lakshmana (2003)
10. In the low land areas where water logging is the common problem (Dhari soil), to avoid the impact of heavy rains during July and August, farmers broadcast a variety of rice seeds possessing early to medium maturing characteristics in dryland and pulverized soil. Generally planking is avoided using this method. After the on-set of the first monsoon, the soil receiving the first precipitation drop and the seeds get germinated. Before the logging of the water the crop is ready for harvest (70 days after sowing). This practice is recognized as rational by the agronomist and soil scientist for reasons of energy, time and moisture conservation as well as labor saving. This is practiced in Bastar district of Madhya Pradesh.
Reported by Ranjay. K. Singh (2003)
11. In the Lahee method of growing the rice crop, the germinated seeds are broadcasted in the well pulverized moist and puddled soil. This practice is done between 10th June to 15th July mainly in Tikara soils, where water runoff is a major problem. Before broadcasting about 15 kgs rice seeds are soaked in the water and kept over two days for germination.
Reported by Ranjay K. Singh (2003)
12. In the Southern part of Bastar district, the Halba tribes cover the paddy seeds by the moist jute bags, while in the Northern part of the district the Gond tribe cover seeds by using the green leaves of saaz tree (Terminallia chibula). The farmers perceive that the leaves act as a catalyst agent for rapid germination of rice seed and increase percentage of germination.
Reported by Ranjay K. Singh(2003)
13. Farmers of Khijuria village of Dumka district of Jharkhand make use of deep lowlands through cultivation of suitable variety. In this practice, wet seeding is done after water recession, because farmers do not wait for complete drying of fields. Due to this practice 100% water logged lands are utilized. This is in practice for last several years by farmers having this type of land.
Reported by Seemavati Singh(2003)
14. To prevent lodging in rice crop at maturity in water logging conditions.Farmers in Khalisha and Udwaninagar villager of Bhojpur district of Bihar use this practice. The practice is used for preventing lodging in rice crop during maturity period in water logged condition. The upper portion of the rice plants is cut with the help of sickle. after 2 months of transplanting Excess growth of rice plant is checked due to pruning. Lower part of the plant becomes strong. This is practiced for the last several years by all farmers in the village.
Reported by Viswesh Kumar(2003)
15. For sowing in over saturated or marshy land situation, rice seeds are soaked in water till they sprout. Then the sprouted seeds are broadcasted in marshy lands. This practice is helpful for rice cultivation in marshy lands where ploughing is not possible. This practice is followed in Khalisha Bakri and Kurwan villages of Udwantnagar in Bhojpur district of Bihar. It is followed in about 90% of marshy land and water logged lands and yield of rice is comparatively (20 to 30%) more than that in transplanted rice. Cost benefit ratio is 1:6 approximately.
Reported by Ranjay K. Singh (2000)
16. Bueshening operation followed by gap filling and weeding in rice is practiced by small farmers of Chhattisgarh region. The direct seeding of rice with beushening operation gave sustainable yield when compared to transplanted rice under rainfed conditions. Normal transplanting requires stable rainfall for its cultivation. Rainfall analysis had shown that there was no stable rainfall during July in Chhattisgarh. Farmers of Chhattisgrah region have adopted this practice to overcome the drought problem since many years.
Reported by Directorate of Extension IGKVV (2003)
17. Integrated farming system with paddy and fish culture.Integrated farming system of paddy and fish is practiced in region of Kuttanad in Kerala. Kuttanad region is below sea level and remains water logged throughout the year. Raised bunds are constructed on the sides of paddy field. Coconut and pineapple are grown on the bunds. Under such geographic condition, paddy is raised as the main crop in rabi season. Sowing is done by direct seeding and harvesting is done by cutting the panicle. After cutting, the remaining part of the plants are left in the field. Later on, water is flooded in the field to moderate level and fingerlings of different species of fish are released in the field. These fishes feed on the vegetative contents of the left over paddy plants and weeds. Poultry and pig rearing are done on the raised platforms of the paddy field, so that castings fall directly into the water. After, harvest of fish, water is drained from the field. Due to exhaustive feeding by fish, the entire paddy field becomes free of weeds with a thick layer of mud that is rich in organic matter and plant nutrients.
Reported by Krishnan Kutty (2003)
18. Under water stress condition spraying one teepol of potash mixed with 10 liters of water at panicle initiation stage increases productivity of paddy.This is practiced by the rice farmers in Tamil Nadu.
Reported by K. Thirunavukarasu(2003)
19. Chopped green leaves of 150 250 kgs of basaka, neem, custard apple, kuruchi and nisinda are mixed in puddl field before transplanting rice to increase the nitrogen use efficiency of applied fertilizers and reduce the infestation of insect pests, pathogens and weeds.
Reported by Dulal Chandra Manna, Rabindra KVK (2003)
Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Rice Cultivation. P. Muthuraman and Shaik. N. Meera