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Indigenous Insect Pest Management in Rice

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1.    Clipping off the tip of rice seedlings before transplanting is practiced all over the state of Assam, to ease  transplantation; to facilitate  uniform  growth  and to remove  insect egg masses  and other major  insect pests  present on the leaf tips is an alternative for  chemical pesticides  application. . This has been  practiced since long time by all farmers without any modification. Reported by  J.K. Choudhry(2003)
2.    Pieces of tree branches are randomly  fixed  in the rice field  to control  some major  insect  pests  through biological means. Generally Chara (lata mahudi) plants are preferred . The practice is  followed  since  long  by almost  all the paddy growers  of Assam. The idea is  to attract  birds  to perch on the  branches  fixed in the rice field  and eat up the insects. Reported by  J.K. Choudhary(2003)
3.    Chopped pieces of colocatia and sometimes chopped  peels of Citurs  grandis  are spread  in rice field to drive away the insect pests.
·    In some places  Calotrophis  gigntea  in grown  on bunds  of paddy fields to check the insect pests.
·    Fixing of dead crabs, frogs or even pieces of jackfruit (Artocarpus  heterophyllas)  to bamboo  sticks  in rice fields.
·    Rope dipped  in kerosene  oil is  drawn  over the  standing  rice crop.
These practices have been  in use  since  long time  without  any modification by all the rice  farmers  all over Assam. Reported by  J.K. Choudhary(2003)

4.    The farmers of Disoi khash village under Dhekargoya Development Block in Jorhat district of Assam  have  adopted  different  methods  for the management  of rice  caseworm, Nymphalla  depunctalis  in paddy field. When infestation of caseworm occurs,  one of the following  practices  is adopted.
·    Water is drained out of the rice field and it is  kept  dry for 3 or 4 days.
·    If it is not possible  to drain  out the water, wild  colocasia plants  are chopped  and applied  to the  field  on standing water and raw cow dung  is applied  to the standing water in the rice field. The purpose of the practice is to kill the  larvae of the caseworm, which float  in the standing water  in rice field and feed  on the leaf  epidermis  of rice plants  during  morning  and afternoon. The case worm larva respires with the  help of rectal  gills  and oxygen is taken  from the water like fish. Therefore, if water is drained out of rice fields, they cannot thrive. On the other hand, if the raw  cow dung is  applied  to standing water, it becomes  turbid  and respiratory function  is disturbed.  Application of colocasia  plants  make the  water toxic  to case worm  larvae. Draining out water from rice fields has excellent  effect, killing  about 100% case worm larvae, whereas,  application of chopped  colocassia plant  and raw cow dung  to standing  water  in the field controls  75-80 % of case worm larvae. Reported by  Jitendra Khound(2003)

5.    Farmers of Boutepoabari village under Jalah  block in  Barpeta  district of Assam  use  pulp of pumelo (Citrus grandis)  locally called robaltenga, or siam weed   (Eupatorium  rugosum)  locally  called Germany  ban, for control of hispa infestation  in paddy. This practice has been in use since for many years . The plant materials and fruits used are locally  and cheaply available. Alternatively bark of  kedamba   tree  or cow dung  or ash  is used by the farmers for the same purpose. Reported by  Satish kaltia(2003)
6.    Most of the paddy growers of Rohru and Chirgon villages in Shimla district of Himachal Pradesh,   plant  twigs  of kainth (pyrus pashia) in the periphery of the fields  after paddy seedlings  are transplanted. These keep away insect pest from  damaging  the paddy. It is observed that insect pests are reduced by 50%  by the use of kainth twigs.    Reported by  Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Rohru(2003)
7.    Farmers in Buribara village of west Singhbhum district in Jharkhand use custard apple (Annona squamosa) for pest control  in paddy crop.  Leaves and seeds of custard apple contain chemicals having insecticidal properties. Insect/pests  of paddy crop  are controlled  by broadcasting  leaves or seeds of  custard apple. The smell of leaves act as  repellent, where as,  leaves  are toxic in nature  to plant   parasites. Leaves are used raw, whereas seeds are processed  and used as powder. This is an age-old  practice  and followed  by every farmer. Reported by  Vishwajit Doraibru(2003)
8.    Farmers of Hatma village of Ranchi district  use this practice  for controlling  the insect /pest attack  and damping  off in the nursery. Paddy straw is burnt  in the nursery plots  after the  first ploughing. Due to burning of straw the soil becomes sterilized and free  from insects/ pests. Ash acts as potash source. Reported by  Veeresh Kumar(2003)
9.    Farmers burn  discarded  rubber  tyre  in the  field  by holding it in their hands. Gundhi bug (Leptocorsia acuta) are attracted towards it.  This method is effective  in protecting  rice crop from gundhi bug. This is age old practice, adopted  by farmers  of Tamar block of Ranchi  district in Jharkhand. Reported by  L. Kispota,Seema Singh,R.S.Prasad(2003)
10.    Farmers use kerosene oil soaked chord to control case worm (Nymphala depunctalis)  in rice. About 70-80% pest control is observed   with this practice. It is practiced   for the last  several years  by maximum  number of farmers  in Tamar block  of Ranchi  district, Jharkahand. Reported by  L. Kispota,Seema Singh,R.S.Prasad(2003)
11.    Majority farmers of Ranchi district of Jharkahnd  use branches  of bhelwa  tree to protect rice crop  from  lahi and gundhi bugs. They collect  branches  from  bhelwa  tree and plant  these in rice field. This practice keeps  insects  away from rice crop because of the repellent character  of bhelwa. Reported by  Rasmi Kandula(2003)
12.    Sindwar leaves are locally available, which act as  intoxicant on the insects. In this practice, sindwar  leaves  are boiled  in water  and the solution is cooled. It is sprayed on the crops         (1kg  leaves per 5 liters  water  for 0.06 acre) with  the help of broom  to control  caseworm (Nymphala depunctalis ). By this practice 60% case worm is controlled. This is in practice for last 25 years by maximum number of farmers in the village. Reported by  Veeresh Kumar(2003)
13.    Rice hispa damages rice crop severely during  early stage of cropping. To control  the rice hispa  people  of Kunchi  village  of Dhanbad  district  (Jharkhand)   use basi mar  spraying on the plot.  Alternatively farmers fill up  their plots  with water  in early morning. They shake the crop  with silver  oak  or maize stick.  Later stick is fixed  in the middle of the plot. Then water  is allowed  to drain  from this  field. They continue this  practice  for 2 to 3 days. All the farmers of the village  are using  this age old practice. Reported by  Ashu Mahto,Basudev  Lal,Ishwar Mahato,Baijnath Mahato,Bharajo, Jharpo(2003)
14.    Farmers of Bara sigdi village of East Singhbhum district face a problem of gundhi bug  during  milky  stage  in paddy crop. This problem is controlled byplacing (Azadirachta indica) or kujri flowers  in small bundles  in 5-6  places. Bugs are repelled  by using  this and about  98% farmers  practice  it in the village. Reported by  Salge Marande(2003)
15.    Rice hispa (or white patches) are very common in paddy crop. They can be  controlled by dusting   sand  and kerosene oil mixture (5:1). The success  rate  of this  practice is almost  20-25 %. It is practiced  for the last  40-50 years by  maximum number of  farmers in the Oraina village  of Nawda  district  of Bihar. Reported by  Arun Kumar Singh(2003)
16.    People of Fumdapokher village of West Singbhum district of Jharkhand  use this  practice  for protecting  rice crop  from gundhi bug. In this practice, a dead snake is hung  by the side of  rice field. Great risk is involved in trapping and killing  the snake. Reported by      Sanat Kumar,Sawaiyan(2003)
17.    Farmers of Raipur district in Chhattisgarh  use Kodo straw is spread  over stagnant  water  to control  pests.  Salfi  palm  and  karla sticks  are also installed  in stagnant  water to  reduce  the pest attack  in rice field.  Salfi palm, kodo straw and karla sticks  have some  insecticidal  properties  which reduce  the insect  population. Reported by  Director of Extension IGKVV (2003)
18.    The swarming caterpillars in paddy is controlled by broadcasting pellets made of boiled rice  mixed  with  hen blood. Smell of blood  and rice attracts  birds  to the fields  and they pick  up swarming  caterpillars. This is practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Dorai Raju(2003)
19.    By keeping one effigy per acre (a man like toy made of rice straw wearing white dress)  at the center of  the paddy field at the  time of  milky  to grain  filling stage,  bird menace  can be reduced. As the effigy appears  human, the birds  fly off; thereby damage is reduced. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
20.    Application of tobacco plant powder at 7-10 days  after  transplanting  of rice in kharif  effectively  controls  the stem borer  and leaf folder  as it  contains  nicotine  sulphate, which acts as a repellent. This practice is prevalent in Andhra Pradesh.    Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
21.    Erecting  fishtail palm branches, jeeluga @ 25-30kg/ acre,  scattered  once  in the rice  in rainfed uplands control  the leaf folder  and stem borer. This contains an alkaloid which acts as a repellent. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
22.    The farmers in Pandri  Halwa  village  of Bareilley  district  in Uttar Pradesh  use kerosene  oil (2.5 liters/acre) in the termite   affected  paddy at the time of irrigation. Kerosene acts as pesticide or repellent  for termites. This practice  is  in  use  for the last  304 years  by 15-20%  families in this village. Others do not  follow  the practice  due to  non-availability  of kerosene oil, lack of knowledge  and also  due to use of chemical pesticides. Reported by Shiv kumar(2003)
23.    Farmers know that standing water in fields helps in controlling termites. In paddy fields if there is no standing water, the termite  attack  is prevalent  and  drying up of paddy crop is the visible  symptom. Where cow dung manure is used extensively when there is  water shortage, the termite  infestation is common. Flooding helps in  reducing  the population  of termites  by disrupting  their life cycle. The success rate of  this  practice  is 98 percent  and it is  age old  practice followed  by 65 percent  of the farmers  in the Bara Sigdi village of East Singbhum district. Reported by  Vibhisan(2003)
24.    This is practiced in Bara sigdi village  of East Singhbhum   district  of Jharkhand. Termite  and insect /pests  of root zone  in paddy are controlled  by fruits  and leaves of ashan. These are broadcasted in paddy fields infested with  termites  and other soil  borne insects. Fruits and leaves of ashan  are bitter, acrid and toxic  to insect pests, which help  in checking  their population. This is age old practice, highly  successful and adopted  by maximum  number of farmers. Reported by  Sideshwar Jer(2003)
25.    The jute capsularies seed extract is used for controlling stem borers. Reported by A.K.Gupta(1988)
26.    Thundering during October – November increases the gall midge incidence. Reported by  Gnanadeepa(1993)
27.    Crabs live in standing water or moist paddy fields and snip off the paddy stems. Farmers crush the flowers of Keshuda (Butea manosperma) and put them near crab burrows. It is believed that this practice reduced the damage to the crop. This is in practice in Rajasthan. Reported by  Lodha(1993)
28.    Cashew tree branches are cut  and  planted  in the field to prevent movement and boring action of stem borer larvae in rice fields by the rice farmers in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Bhaskaran and Narayanaswami(1995)
29.    Farmers pulverize neem seed kernal and soak in equal amount of water  over night  and spray it on the rice crop  after filtration to control Brown Planthoppers  and Green Leafhoppers in Tamil Nadu . Reported by  Bhaskaran and Narayanaswami(1995)
30.    Neem seed kernal is soaked in kerosene over night. In the  next day morning  the suspension is filtered and sprayed  by adding sufficient quantity of water to control insect pests of rice . This is prevalent in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Kavitha(1998)
31.    Neem cake is applied as basal manure  which helps to protect the rice from BPH at later stages in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Bhaskaran and Narayanaswami(1998)
32.    Sacks filled with neem cake are immersed in irrigation channel to control termites by the farmers of Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Bhaskaran and Narayanaswami(1998)
33.    Neem oil, Pungam oil,  and soapnut  powder  mixture is used to control leaf folder  at 1:1:1/2 ratio by the farmers of Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Bhaskaran and Narayanaswami(1998)
34.    Neem oil, water, and  detergent 1:1:1 in the  ratio of 1:1:1  is used  to control  BPH in paddy by farmers of Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Bhaskaran and Narayanaswami(1998)
35.    Farmers  in Karnataka collect the leaves of Pungamia  which grow on river sides, road sides and in forests and incorporate them in water logged paddy fields before transplanting. The leaves thoroughly get mixed during the puddling operation and decay within 2-3 days. Once they decay the smell from the waste repels paddy pests. Reported by      Bhaskaran and Narayanaswami(1998)
36.    Farmers of Narkuda village of Ranga Reddy district,  Andhra Pradesh expose paddy crop to the smoke of burnt leaves of custard apple and Vitex nugundo for better control of insects and rats. This is practiced by the farm families of the village for the last 20 years. Leaves of these plants are put in  a pot and burnt near rat burrows. By this practice, rats are killed and insects fly away from plants. About 5 kg dry leaves are required to give smoke in 1 acre land. Reported by A. Sankharyya(2004)
37.    In Assam, leaves of kohu gans (Grewea sp) are collected and ground to control insects and pests in rice.  A few liters of water is added and the extract is sprayed in the affected field.  Erection of stems of this plant in the affected field also gives good results. Reported by  Willy Sangma(2004)
38.    Farmers of Pasighat block in Arunachal Pradesh use crabs as insect attractant. Farmers collect 40-50 crabs and kill them. After killing, these crabs are tied with bamboo sticks and placed randomly in the field. Insects are attracted with the smell of crabs and they sit over the body to suck the sap. Thus the crop is saved from the insects. Reported by  Ranjay K. Singh(2004)
39.    Farmwomen of Mishing tribe of East Siang district, Arunachal Pradesh spread the leaves of markati plant (Baccaurea ramiflora) randomly after transplanting paddy in the field. By spreading these leaves, the paddy crop is saved from various diseases and the insects are repelled from paddy field. This practice is used since time immemorial and 80-85% farmers rely on this practice. Reported by  Ranjay K. Singh(2004)
40.    White grub is a major problem of rice grown in the hills. It causes severe losses in yield. To control white grub infestation in field, farmers use common salt. A solution is prepared by mixing 1 kg of common salt in 5 liters of water, which is sprayed in about 200m2 area after ploughing and before sowing. Reported by  Ranjay K. Singh(2004)
41.    In Joynagar, Teliamura (West Tripura) generally there is incidence of aphids on paddy at flowering time. Farmers of this area dip the dried fish in water for 1-2 days. Afterwards this fish soaked water is filtered and some quantity of water is added and then it is sprayed in the field, which repels aphids from paddy field. Reported by  Ranjay K. Singh(2004)
42.    Farmers of Pasighata area pluck pumello fruits (Citrus grandis) and cut its skin into small pieces. These pieces are fixed on bamboo sticks, which are inserted in paddy field. Insects are controlled by this practice. Reported by  Ranjay K. Singh(2004)
43.    Rhizome of jamalakhuti (Costus speciosus) is crushed to make a paste and the juice is extracted out of it. This juice extract is diluted and sprayed  in paddy field to control rice hispa. This  practice is followed by the people of Amtola village in Kamrup district of Assam. Reported by  Haren Kaltia(2003)
44.    Tribal farmers of Champhai district of Mizoram follow the cultivation of rice in jhum lands. In rainfed rice of jhum lands, there is attack of various insect pests. Farmers broadcast the seeds of rice in field and plant tulsi on borders of the field. This plant is also planted randomly to repel many other damaging insect pests. It is an age old practice. Reported by  Ranjay K. Singh(2003)
45.    A paste is prepared by mixing 1 kg leaves each of chaste tree (Vitex negundo), garden quinine (Clerodendrum inerme) Indian aloe (Aloe vera) and seed of neem (Azadiracta indica). This paste is diluted in 100 liters water for spraying in 1 acre after 25-30 days of planting (the mixture is kept overnight before using for spraying). This formulation effectively controls pests as well as diseases in paddy. Reported by  M. K. Chellamuthu(2003)
46.    Green twigs of Calotrpis gigantean plants are placed in the paddy fields to control aphids  and they are replaced  once in 10 days.  This is practiced in Gujarat. Reported by  Gupta and Patel(1997)
47.    To control stem borer in paddy fields, branches of Erythrina  indica  plants are placed in the soils. Reported by Choudhry(1998)
48.    About 30 Kgs common salt is applied for 1 hectare area of  paddy crop to protect it from stem borer by the  Rice farmers in Tripura. Reported by  Pradhan(1998)
49.    During panicle formation stage in paddy, the flowers of Cycas circinalis are  placed  on sticks  in paddy fields  @4/ac. Its unpleasant odor repels  ear head  bugs.  This is practiced in Tamil Nadu Reported by  Vivekanandan(1998)
50.    To protect the paddy crop from grass hoppers, Sesbania  aegyptiaca  is grown  as a hedge  all around the paddy fields. This practiced in Uttar Pradesh. Reported by  Sharma(1995)
51.    To save paddy crop from mealy bugs farmers take a discarded  tyre and burn it  They drag it around the  field  and put it on windward direction. The smoke  and smell are assumed  to repel the pest.  Farmers from Srikakulam  and Vizianagam practices this. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2000)
52.    Vasambu (Acotus calamus) is powdered and dissolved  in water and kept over night. The next day, the clear solution is mixed with 200 ml of neem oil and is sprayed  on the paddy crop to prevent  pest attack by the farmers of Tamil Nadu. Reported by  R. Nagarajan(2003)
53.    Farmers in Tamil Nadu are using  Calotropis gigantem to prevent  the attack  of thrips  in paddy nursery. Reported by  K. Kumaran(2003)
54.    To control stem borer and leaf folder in rice, 500 ml of neem oil is mixed  with 4 kg soil and some  fresh cow dung. It is dried in shade for two days. Thereafter, it is dissolved in 50 liters of water, and about 200 grams of soap is dissolved  in this  mixture and is sprayed on the crop. Reported by  Vivekanandan(1998)
55.    Farmers in some parts of Tamil Nadu  use  green branches  of Strychnus nuxvomica to  control  the insect pests  of paddy. The green branches are placed  at 10 feet interval in the paddy fields. Insects  in these treated   fields  are killed instantly. Reported by  Vivekanandan(1998)
56.    Neem leaves are mixed  with equal quantity  of Pirandai  (Cissus quadragularis) leaves. This mixture  is ground well and soaked  in cow urine  for one week and afterwards  it is filtered. The  filtrate  is mixed  with water  at 1:9 ratio and is  sprayed  twice at 15 days  interval to control  all the pests of paddy. Reported by  P.S. Senthil Kumar(2003)
57.    Cow dung slurry  is prepared by mixing  1kg cow dung  in 10 liters of water.  The slurry is mixed with 1 kg  crushed karada ( Xylia xylocarpus)  leaves.  This solution is sprayed  at weekly intervals for controlling major insect pests of rice. Reported by  MS. Sarabani Das(2003)
58.    Bhang (Cannabis sativa) plants are used for controlling  thread worms  in paddy.  Bhang plants are uprooted  and kept in standing water  in paddy fields. If the problem is severe, then crushed  leaves are put in the standing water to kill the worm. Reported by      M.P. Gupta(2003)
59.    Rice farmers in Andhra Pradesh are using  plant materials like  fish tail palm leaves (Caryota urens)  and Jeelugu  for the control of  leaf folder and stem borer in paddy. They  spread/ scatter 25-30 leaves  per acre  in the paddy field. This fish tail leaves  exudes alkaloids, which prevents pests. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
60.    ‘Musidi leaves’  (Nux vomica)  are broadcasted  in the field if termite  attack is observed in paddy. This is  practiced by the farmers in Andhra Pradesh. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
61.    Wood apple  (Velaga fruit)  is made  into powder and used to broadcast in field  to reduce  tella chitta ( leaves turning white) in paddy by the farmers in Andhra Pradesh. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
62.    When paddy is infested with leaf folder and gall midge  farmers of Andhra Pradesh  drag  thorny  bushes in field to shed the insects pests. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
63.    Neem cake (20kg/ac) is applied as basal manure  which helps to protect  paddy crop from  BPH and improves soil fertility. This is prevalent in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Rajiv K. Sinha(1998)
64.    Uprooting gall midge affected seedlings  and burning  in the nursery before transplanting  is practiced by the farmers of Andhra Pradesh. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
65.    Farmers in Andhra Pradesh  believe that presence of the Gaviribethi snake improves  crop yields  because it  predates  on rodents. Reported by  Vivekanandan(1998)
66.    Castor seed cake is mixed with  urea  by the farmers of Andhra pradesh to repel  soil borne  insects like ‘white grubs’ and termites. This also provides   good nutrient  to soil since  castor seed  cake is rich in  minerals. Reported by  Vivekanandan(1998)
67.    Tribal farmers of Bihar destroy major rice pests  by applying the extract  of  the kachoo plant (Colocasia esculenta) and Bihlangani ( Polygonum glabram)  into the water  inlets  to field.Reported by  Rajiv K. Sinha(1998)
68.    In Tamil Nadu  the rice farmers   sow  ambadi    (Hibiscus  cannabims) seeds  in rice fields  under upland condition  to control termite  attacks. Reported by  Rajiv K. Sinha(1998)
69.    Rice farmers in Tamil Nadu plant every 10th  row  with  a variety of rice  which is  highly susceptible  to ‘stem borers’.  The insect feeds only on these rows  of rice  and leave the  rest untouched. Reported by  Rajiv K. Sinha(1998)
70.    A solution  made  of  extracts of 1 kg of  garlic, 200 grams of  tobacco leaves  and 200 grams of washing powder is   dissolved  in 200 liters   water and   sprayed  on the affected  crop of paddy. One spray controls   the insect pest  by 80 percent. This practice is used  by the progressive farmers  and well to do  farmers in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. Reported by  Shagufa Jamal(2003)
71.    Fresh leaves of Parsa (Cleistanthus collinus) and Sali              (Boswellia serrata) are spread  on the insect  infested  field of about 5 kg leaves  per 100 m2. About 70-80 percent of the insect pests are   are controlled  with this practice by the farmers of Jhrkhand. Reported by  Sanat Kumar Sawaiyan(2003)
72.    Wild sugarcane Saccharum  spontaneum  twigs of height  4 to 5  ft and 4 to 5 cm diameter  are planted  after 15 days  of transplanting  in rice  field  for control of leaf folder. These erected  branches harbour  the predators of leaf folder  at the time of  it occurrence, thereby suppressing  the incidence of the pest.  This practice is prevalent in Orissa. Reported by  Birendra Nayak(2003)
73.    Banki or rice caseworm infestation in paddy is common  near Ranchi area of Jharkhand, which cuts paddy leaves,  make pipe like encasings  and feeds inside. In  case of severe attack  90 percent of yield losses are experienced. To control the pest, Sandhana  is mixed  with water. The water is then sprayed or sprinkled  on the affected  paddy plant. The benefit  claimed by this method  is more than 50 percent.  Reported by  Rajiv Kumar Jha(2003)
74.    Gallfly  (Pachydiplosis oryzae)  is very harmful to rice crop. It  regularly damages   in endemic areas and the losses may go upto  50 percent in case of severe attack Farmers in Jharkhand use  parso/ persu (Ceistanthus collinus)  leaves  for controlling  gallfly.  In this practice, fresh leaves  of   persu  are colleted  and spread  in the infested field with out  processing.  About 10 kg leaves are required for 1000m2 area and controls 70-80 percent  of the insects. Reported by      R.S. Prasad(2003)
75.    Application of 76-150 kg parso/ persu (Ceistanthus collinus)  leaves by broadcasting  once in the rice field  at 3  days  after transplanting  controls yellow stem borer during kharif.  This is practiced in Jharkhand. Reported by  Secretary Aralkocha(2003)
76.    Herbal pesticide is prepared  by farmers of Uttar Pradesh and Haryana by mixing  cow urine, nirgandi (Vitex negundo)  leaves and hing  ( asafetida). This mixture in appropriate proportion is considered  effective  bio-pesticide for rice pests. It contains  certain ingredients  having insecticidal  as well as  insect repellent property, which makes it useful  for control of insects pests of paddy crop. About 30 –40 leaves  of nirgandi (Vitex negundo)  are boiled   in  10 liter  water  till it  condensed  to one liter.  About 10 gram of asafoetida is then mixed in it. These ingredients are mixed in about 5 liters of  cow urine. The mixture is then filtered and  sprayed  as bio-pesticide  over affected crops.  This spray is for all sowing seasons i.e., early sowing, normal or late sowing seasons of rice crop. Reported by  Rajnder Rajan(2003)
77.    To control leaf folder in paddy, ducks are released in the field to feed  on the pest. This is practiced  by farmers  in Kruppathevanpatty village in Theni district in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  A. Kumareshan(2003)
78.    Burning of discarded  cycle  tyre controls mealy bugs in the paddy field. The smoke and smell of the burning tyre  repels the pest. This practice is being followed  by the farmers  in Dindigul  for the  past many years. Reported by  Ponnusami(2003)
79.    To control leaf  folder and  stem borer  in paddy, spraying  of kerosene  is in practice. Five liters of kerosene is  mixed  with soap  and water to spray  one  hectare. Farmers of Periyur village in Madurai distinct of Tamil Nadu  practice  this technique. Reported by  M. Jagadeesan(2003)
80.    To control pests in paddy, farmers generally spray chilli  and tobacco extracts . For the last five  years  20 percent   of farmers  are using  this technique in Nachlur  village, Karur district in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  R. Velusami(2003)
81.    Spraying mixture  of kerosene  oil and ash prevents  attack  of root  and stem borer in paddy. This oprcaticed in Tamil Nadu. Reported by     A.Dharmar(2003)
82.    7.5 kg of neem seeds, 4 kg leaves of Kattunochi  ( Vitex negundo)  2 kg siru  thumbai  (Leucus aspera)  and 2 kg  peru thumbai  (Leucus  marincenis)  are pounded  well and soaked  in mud  pot containing  10 liters  of cow urine. The mixture is  allowed  to ferment  for a  week.   One liter of this filtrate is filled  in a sprayer  tank  along wtith soap water ( prepared with 100g of washing  soap  scraps  soaked  in water  and diluted). Five liters liquid  mixture  is sufficient  for spraying  60 cents of  paddy field. Four times application at 10 days interval  from 25th day  of planting  is practiced to  control  pest and diseases in paddy field. This is practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  A.Dharmar(2003)
83.    Farmers of Andhra Pradesh used to  scare   birds  with stones  kept  in a leather pouch  tied  with a string  and releasing  the stones  to a greater  distance  prevents  the bird  attack as they felt this is better    It is better  than  beating of  boards  to scare  way the birds  at the time of  maturity of  rice crop. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
84.    Farmers of Baramati Block of Pune district in Maharashtra  practice  this method  to scare  away  the birds  from  the crop. The audio cassette tape is  tied  tightly  above the rice crop.  The light reflection in the tape due to  the sunlight  and scattering  noise due to the wind  are used  to scare the birds. The losses due to birds  are minimized  upto 15% by this method. Reported by  Taware Gopal Rao(2003)
85.    Beating drums is an effective  method to scare away not only  birds but  also thieves. This is in practice  in  Serapattu village of Villupuram  district in Tamil Nadu. When   crops  are at maturity  stage, this practice  is very effective. Reported by  K. Kandan(2003)
86.    For controlling  diverse  pests and diseases  in paddy, a solution  prepared  from the  leaves of Tertis indica, Chloraxylon surtenia, Prosopis julifera, Vitex  negundo, Azadirachta indica and Nicotiana tobacum is sprayed. This being practiced by farmers in Kandepalayam village of Coimbatore  district  in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Rajammal(2003).
 

File Courtesy: 
Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Rice Cultivation. P. Muthuraman and Shaik. N. Meera
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