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Indigenous Main Field Preparation

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1.    The planting and laddering after 30-40 days of sowing paddy is practiced to have positive effect on tillering of the crop. . Reported by  A.K. Gupta(1998)
2.    Rough leveling of the surface of paddy fields is done by moving soil with the wooden plate with 1.8 m width and 40 cm height. . Reported by  Harikosi(1991)
3.    A banana trunk about 3.5 m long is suspended with a rope that is tied around hip of the farmer and  is pulled to level the surface of paddy fields. . Reported by  Shimda(1991)
4.    Economically poor farmers first harvest early paddy by deheading only the panicles  and leaving  the plant. If there is good late rain they get second crop from the tillers, which had not flowered earlier. . Reported by  Rath(1992)
5.    Farmers dibble the seed of maize in one line while in another two or three  rows they sow paddy seeds or seedlings. Towards  the end of July they make on assessment of the pattern  and the quantum of rain and accordingly retain one of the two crops. . Reported by  Lodha(1992)
6.    Crop residues and tree branches are burnt  on the  rice soil  surface  at the summer  end  to improve  the  structure of clayey  soil to make  ploughing easy. This is practiced  at Maharashtra. . Reported by  Rahudkar(1998)
7.    Neem cake 50 kgs and Gypsum 25kgs  are applied  at the time of  puddling  which prevents  pest attack  in paddy  and improves soil fertility. Reported by  K.Lakshmana(2002)
8.    In Tamil Nadu, mixtures of three–month and six-month duration paddy varieties are sown together. When the short duration variety is ready for harvesting, both  are cut  at ground level . A special plough  is then used  to split  the tillers  of the six month  variety, which grows  rapidly and provides a second crop.  Reported by  Rajiv. K .Sinha(1998)
9.    To control harmful green algae, Gundhi  (Chara) in rice,  50-100 kgs of plucked Karada leaves are broadcasted  in the paddy fields. The algae consumes oxygen from the water of the rice fields and produces carbon dixoide  that results  in yellowing  and dwarfing  of  rice plants. The toxicants present in the Karada leaves damage the chlorophyll of the green algae. This practice is used in Orissa.  Reported by  M. Mohanty(2003)
10.    Dry and wet  broadcast of rice in flood prone  areas
a)    Dry broadcast  of Ahu Rice
In flood prone rice tracts where early harvest is  indispensable,  the farmers  of Bengal  traditionally  take  resort to  dry broadcast  of short-duration dunai class of local ahu varieties of around 80 days duration. Dry seeding is done  in the later part of  February to early  March with high seed  rate  around 120%. For such practice, tillage operation for land preparation is done at the  earliest  opportunity  with the help  of initial  pre-monsoon showers during February. Usually lighter soils are preferred  and  fertilizer  is not applied. 
b)    Wet broadcast of late Sali
After recession of flood water, wet broadcasting of dunai (70- 80  days duration) and Murali (85 –90 days)  classes of indigenous  rice varieties  are practiced  in puddled soil.  In this practice  sowing  has to be  completed  by the middle  of September, as the  later  sowing  will create  sterility problem due to  low  temperature. With the introduction of HYVs the indigenous varieties are constantly  being replaced, although the system is still prevalent. The advantage of this practice is that it provides insurance against the risk of flood damage as compared to the existing farming systems. This practice is in use for years with modifications made from time to time regarding the variety. About 70% farmers adopt these practices. Alternatively the farmers go for late transplanting of Sali rice in the second fortnight of September. Reported by   J. Choudhary(2003)

File Courtesy: 
Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Rice Cultivation. P. Muthuraman and Shaik. N. Meera
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