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Indigenous method of Rodent Management in Rice

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1.    In rice fields, nearer to the bunds big mud pots are immersed to half of its height. Half of the mud pots are filled with water and chaffy paddy is put into it. The chaffy paddy  mixed with the water emit a type of smell like the grain storage structure. Attracted by this smell, the rats jump into the pot but can’t come out of it as it is half empty. Farmers then catch the rats and kill them. This practice is prevalent in Kerala. Reported by Abraham(1997)
2.    Generally rats attack the rice crop at vegetative, ripening and harvesting stages and creates maximum damage to the crop. To control the rats, farmers use 10 kilograms of kuvalaikai (Cannabis sativa L)  seeds,  crushed into pieces and tied in a gunny bag. While irrigating the rice fields, the gunny bag is kept in the channel. The juice from the crushed seeds and the obnoxious smell mix into the water and spread into the whole field. This acts as a repellent driving   away the rats from the fields and protecting  the rice crop. This is very popular among the rice farmers in Tamil Nadu. Reported by Centre for Indian Knowledge Systems(2000)
3.    Farmers use 3 liters of motor oil  mixed it with water while irrigating the field.  Rats do not like the smell of motor oil and hence  keep  away from the rice fields. Reported by  Centre for Indian Knowledge Systems(2000)
4.    Ten kilograms of fresh cow dung is mixed with 1½ liters of kerosene and the mixture is made into small balls and allowed to dry upto 75% moisture content. Then the balls are kept near the burrows at 10 feet interval.  The smell emitting from the balls acts as a repellant and drives away the rats from rice fields. Reported by Abraham(1997)
5.    Three-fourth ripened papaya fruits are cut into pieces and kept  near the rat burrows  and bunds of the rice fields. When rats eat the papaya pieces, the milk of the papaya pieces get into the gums of the rat. This milk not only disturbs the rats but also create some injury in the gums of the rat. This will prevent them from attacking the rice crop. They also cannot sharpen their teeth by cutting the tillers leading to excess growth of teeth  and disturbing  their food collection. Reported by Ulluwishewa(1993)
6.    Roasted groundnut powder and mixed with  little amount of jaggery and cement is used to kill the rats.  This mixture is kept on the bunds of  rice fields. Few hours after consuming it, the cement get solidified like concrete and affect the digestive system of the rats which ultimately leads to their death. This practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by Kanagasababathy(1993)
7.    Chappathi made up of wheat flour can be made into small pieces and it can be mixed with honey or jaggery and cement.  Rats like this chappathi pieces due to the sweet taste. But after few hours of eating they die because the cement get solidified. This practiced in Karnataka. Reported by Hegde(1997)
8.    At the time of tillering and booting stages of rice crop, the pods of groundnut, castor seed shells,  or husks of pearl millet/ finger miller/ paddy  are spread at the rate of  10 bags per acre. If practiced twice with a gap of ten days the rats can be controlled. It is practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Vijaylakshmi and Sundar(1998)
9.    Roasted gingley powder or groundnut powder mixedwith five percent  jaggery  in liquid form and five percent fused bulb powder is kept in the rice field. Ten minutes after eating the mixture  the rats will die. This is practiced in Uttar Pradesh. Reported by Narain Singh(2000)
10.    Small pieces of cotton wicks  soaked with jaggery solution are kept on the bunds of the rice fields. After eating  the jaggery solution coated wicks  the rats will die due to suffocation in  its respiratory system. Reported by  C.A. Mathew(1998)
11.    Half a kilogram of jatropha seed powder is boiled in 2-3 liters of water. After filtering the decoction, one kilogram  of sorghum  is added  and cooked  again. The cooked seeds of sorghum is spread on the bunds of the rice fields where rat menace is prevalent.  After eating the cooked sorghum seed the rats will die instantly. This very popular in Tamil nadu and Andhra Pradesh. Reported by Prakash(2000)
12.    Fumigating rat burrows with Milagu (Pepper Corns: Piper nigrum L ) and  Tippili  (Jawa  Pepper Corn : Piper longum ) will instantly kill the rats in rice fields. This practice is prevalent in Kerala. Reported by Hegde(2000)
13.    By growing glyricida plant near the rice godowns rat’s movement  can be controlled.  Spreading the leaves of glyricidia   inside the paddy store room  and closing  all the windows and ventilation points,  also helps  to control rats.  The smell from the leaves of glyricidia acts as a repellent. Reported by Patel(1994)
14.    Between the bunds and the main rice field, 3 feet gap  is to be maintained and in this gap, empty bottles  are  kept with the mouth of the bottles facing  opposite to the wind direction. When the air enters into the glass bottle it creates a type of noise which is highly allergic to the rodents. Hence, a minimum rat attack can be noticed. Karnataka farmers are  practicing this technique. Reported by  Abraham(1998)
15.    In rice fields, farmers  erect  nine feet stick or coconut stalk  in reverse position.  This is acts as a bird perch. At night time, owl or other nocturnal birds will sit and prey on  the rats. This one of the cost effective measures of rat control followed by rice farmers. Reported by K.Lakshmana(2000)
16.    A paste made  by grinding neem seeds and wild Puthina  is made into small balls and kept near the burrows in the rice field. After eating these  balls  the rats become sterile, hence  their multiplication  (reproductive behavior) will be checked. This is used by the farmers in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Vijaylakshmi and Sundar(2008)
17.    Fully cooked parboiled paddy  is mixed with furadon granules and spread in the bunds, near burrows and other rat infested places in the rice fields. Rats are attracted  to the smell of parboiled  rice and eat it. After consuming the  parboiled paddy, the rat will die  within hours. This  is  practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by Kanagasabapathi(1993)
18.    Three kilograms of sorghum seeds are tied in a cloth bag and soaked in 4 liters of water wherein one kilogram of urea is dissolved. After eight hours  the sorghum seeds are taken out  of the urea dissolved water.  The sorghum seeds are spread near the burrows of the rice field. Soon after consuming the sorghum seeds the rats die. This is practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by VE.Sabarathinam(1998)
19.    Polythene papers (usually the fertilizer bags) are tied in bamboo sticks and kept in the rice fields at regular interval. When the wind blows, the paper (polythene bags) create a type of sound, which control the rat movement in rice fields. This technique is very popular in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.  Reported by  VE. Sabarathinam(1998)
20.    Scare crow (like effigy) made up of paddy straw and   covered with white cloth  is kept in the paddy field. Rats get scared by seeing the scare crow and evade attacking the rice crop. It is practiced in all the rice growing areas in India. Reported by  VE. Sabarathinam(1998)
21.    At evening time crackers are burst on the paddy field bunds to scare the rodents. Reported by Yadav(1993)
22.    Moultings by snakes are kept on the bunds of the rice field. Seeing the moulting of snakes in rice field rats shift their habitat from the rice fields, which ultimately reduce the damage of rice crop by rats. This is practiced in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Kerala. Reported by Centre for Indian Knowledge Systems(2000)
23.    Farmers believe that  the presence of the Gaviribethi snake improves crop yields because it preys  on rodents. Reported by    K. Lakshmana(2000)
24.    The fruits of Kaunj posses small hairs which cause itching in animals as well as in humans when contacted.  The fruit skins of kaunj are kept in the rat holes. This causes severe itching in rats  when they come in contact  with these fruits. The raw material is locally available in Uttar Pradesh as grows abundantly in wild conditions. Reported by Madhavanand Joshi(2000)
25.    Leaves of bharalkans (Saccharum spontaneum) are collected  from bunds  of the fields  or road sides. Five to six leaves are placed on the  bunds  in a continuous row on all sides  of the field. The serrated margins of bharalkans cause injury to the rats and  thus  prevents  them  from damaging  fields. The practice is followed in Manda villge of Bareilley  district  in Uttar Pradesh, and is used  for the last  45  years. Reported by   Sher Singh (2000)
26.    3’–4’ long pieces of bhara grass are kept on the bunds continuously. This prevents entrance of rats to fields. Many villages and blocks of districts of Badaun, Bareilly, Rampur and Shajahanpur in Uttar Pradesh follow this practice. Reported by Husan Afzal(1999)


File Courtesy: 
Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Rice Cultivation. P. Muthuraman and Shaik. N. Meera
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