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Indigenous Rice Varieties

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1. Aadi tribes of Pasighat block in Arunachal Pradesh grow a local paddy variety Boga Kolony in the uplands as rainfed crop, where water availability is low. The plant height is 2.5 feet and the colour of grains is whitish yellow. This is sown mixed with pearl millet and maize. The field is ploughed by using L shaped blade. Dibbling method is used for sowing the seeds but nowadays few people are using desi plough. After germination, farmwomen do the weeding. This variety is resistant to insect and pests. To avoid any occurrence of insect pests, farmers spread pummelo fruit bark and hand dead crab on bamboo poles. During milky stage, wood ash is sprayed to prevent the housefly attack.
Reported by Ranjay K. Singh(1998)

2. Qurqut, a local paddy is cultivated in Goa in rainy (kharif) season with very tall plant type and red grain. It can be grown under irrigated conditions. Its taste is most acceptable, but has been  yielding less. Crop duration is 122 to 135 days.
Reported by Priti Tilve(2003)

3.  The paddy variety ‘baal chaudi’ has 90 days  duration yields  about  2500 kg/ ac  gives  coarse  grain  and tolerates many pests and diseases. It is cultivated in Tamil Nadu.
Reported by Sundaramari(2002)

4. ‘Budamalu’ (Mettudanyam)  is a traditional paddy  variety   cultivated  as mixed crop with red gram in Andhra Pradesh.
Reported by K. Lakshmana(2002)

5. ‘Garika sannalu;’ is a traditional early maturing  variety is cultivated in Andhra Pradesh  by the tribal farmers  and taste good.
Reported by K. Lakshmana(2002)

6. ‘Isuka ravvalu’ is an indigenous scented paddy variety  with 6 months  crop duration and seed are small in size. It is grown in Andhra Pradesh.
Reported by K. Lakshmana(2002)

7. Kambu sannalu’ is an  indigenous  scented  paddy variety  with 6 months crop duration  and the grain is  medium to big in size. It is grown in Andhra Pradesh.
Reported by K. Lakshmana(2002)

8. ‘Krishna kathikalu’ is a traditional medium  maturing  variety with 100-120 days duration. This  paddy with good taste  is cultivated by the tribals of Andhra Pradesh.
 Reported by K. Lakshmana(2002)

9. ‘Potti basangi’ is a traditional early maturing (90 days) paddy variety with small seeds cultivated by the tribal farmers Srikakulam in Andhra Pradesh.
Reported by K. Lakshmana(2002)

10.  Kambu sannalu’ is an  indigenous  scented  paddy variety  with 6 months crop   and the grain is  medium to big in size.
Reported by K. Lakshmana(2002)

11.  ‘Pantulu danyam’ is an indigenous paddy variety with a duration of 120 days with brown shiny seed coat and popular in the tribal belt of Andhra Pradesh.
 Reported by K. Lakshmana(2002)

12.  ‘Yerra danyam’ is a tall indigenous paddy variety which  gives higher yields without any fertilizer  application.
 Reported by K. Lakshmana(2002)

13.  In Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh, the resource poor farmers grow bhandai  an indigenous paddy, early and short duration variety, to reduce  risk  from  biophysical and socio-economic factors. This variety is drought resistant and has long  spreading root system. It is  resistant  to insect pests. Farmers  feel  that  this is  location specific  variety which  is  best  grown  in their conditions.  Since it is   early and of short duration farmers  can  subsequently grow pulses and oilseed crops successfully.
Reported by Ranjay K. Singh(2000)

14.  Traditional paddy variety  (Nagina –22) for highly risk prone  irrigated conditions. The resource poor farmers  having light  soil with sloppy land under  unirrigated conditions  grow Nagina  22 variety. It is one of the best  varieties grown  for early maturity under the  upper stream, highly  sloppy land, where soil  is very light with  moisture stress. It is generally grown  under monocropping  system in Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh. Nagina –22   variety is  not an indigenous  variety but  was  developed  at research  station  long back  and is now quite popular . Farmers still continue to use it under stress conditions.
Reported by Ranjay K. Singh(2000)

15.  Indigenous paddy variety ( karahni) is grown on blackish  soils under rainfed  conditions. Karahni is an indigenous  paddy variety  grown in areas of  Azamgarh district of Uttar Pradesh, which are  moderately  risk prone areas with blackish  soil and partial irrigation. It gives  good yield  of 15-20  quintals  per hectare  in a short  time  and clears  the  field for growing  rabi pulses and oilseeds. The variety is location specific and resistant to  insect pests.
 Reported by Ranjay K. Singh(2000)

16.  Traditional paddy variety cultivar  (sarkar nellu ) in rainfed sloppy lands. Farmers of Gundintham village in Tamil Nadu grow paddy locally called  sarkar nellu. Direct seeding is generally done but sometimes transplanting  of the  seedlings is  done without  puddling. This variety is in use for the last 30 years in this village.
Reported by R. Annadurai(2003)

17.  Indigenous  paddy variety ( karanga ) grown  in partially irrigated soil. Karanga is an indigenous  paddy variety grown on brown soils of Azamgarh  districts, It can  successfully grown  on moderate risk  conditions  by resource  poor farmers. It is one of the best varieties suitable  for water  logged  and heavy soils like  karail mitti at lower stream. It produces 20-25  quintals of grain  per hectare. It is short  duration and leaves  the field  free for growing  pulses and oil seed  crops after harvesting rice.
 Reported by Ranjay K. Singh (2000)

18. Use of  traditional  rice varieties  to minimize risk. Traditional varieties are disease and pest resistant  and also suitable to existing  micro farming situations. These varieties give  at least  some yield  even in stress situations and no risk  is involved. The practice is followed in many villages in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. Success has been  reported  in more than 80%  of the cases. Cost benefit ratio is 1:5 approximately. 
Reported by Ranjay K. Singh(2000)

19. Tribals of Baster district adopt  farming  practices in 3 major  farming  situations for which  they have specified  biophysical indicators like soil color, texture,  depth etc. They are cultivating  about 38  paddy varieties  of different  maturity duration and yield potential. With specific  characteristics, 38  varieties are classified  based on farming situations under which  they are  being cultivated.
Reported by Ranjay K. Singh(2000)
 

File Courtesy: 
IIndigenous Technical Knowledge in Rice Cultivation. Dr. P. Muthuraman and Dr. Shaik. N. Meera
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