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Indigenous technical knowledge (ITKs) of Assam

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1.    To get rid of general pests confronted in rice field, farmers of Assam follow the following ITK practices:-
2.    To reduce the initial inoculums of general pests and disease, a few farmers used to burn the straw and stubbles before initiate plouging of field operation. However, this burning operation is not common, but it is based on the disease pressure experienced of the preceding years by a farmer of specific locality.
3.    For early germination the farmers used to cover the seeds with colocasia leaves due to which the temperature raises and contributed in early germination.
4.    They prefer to use aged seedling so as to debar early pest infestation
5.    Before transplanting, seedlings are trimmed due to which eggs of pest like stem borer could be eliminated easily and thereby reduce the pest pressure considerably .
6.    Vermicaste are subjected to dip in kerosin oil for soaking and after a while these are placed in the 4 corners of rice field after establishment of seedling. This practice enable early pests control (stem borer, case worm, leaf folder, stem rot sclerotic, gall midge etc.)
7.    Bamboo perches are used in the rice field which allow the predatory birds to rest on it and thereby able to prey the insect pests comfortably.
8.    To contain the early pests, farmers used to apply leaves and twigs of some herbs such as, Posotia, Eupatorium odoratum, bel, zizipus sp, and also peel of pummelo, orange, goat excretion etc.
9.    Against case worm and rice hispa a technique is used whereby a kerosin dipped coconut thread is slide over the crop canopy by two persons holding the thread at the two ends against each other. The larvae along with case fall on the water which could be drained off easily and hispa repel as well.
10.    Dead frog, fish, slug, snail etc used as cure to attract the rice bug and later on they were killed mechanically, some farmers also used inside cover of the consumed ripen jack fruit with the same intension to trap the insect and later mass killing is done. ‘Fire torch’ at night also reduce insect pest in the field more particularly the rice bug.
11.    To reduce the attack of storage pests, farmers used neem leaf in the storage bin/structures in several layers in between the seeds. Camphor is also used to reduce the attack of those pests.
12.    Against rice bug, farmers used to keep saw dust or rice husk of at least 6 inch layer upon the seed in storage structure. This will mislead the rice bug and seed become safe from egg laying.
13.    ‘Ghara neem’ extract kill insect of rice field.
14.    Pieces of black colocana are applied to the rice field which control case worm infestation.
15.    Wood ash is applied in nursery beds after sowing of seeds, which prevents birds for easily uprooting.
16.    Placing of scarecrow in field at seedling stage of rice and thereby prevent bird damage.
17.    Tin sheets are tied with strings and flapped. Noise/reflection of light confuse the birds. Also reel of audio and video cassette are tied around nursery plots to prevent birds visit to rice field during grain formation.
18.    Leaves of Keturi/turmeric/toruwa kadam or bihlongni leaves is applied to rice field for controlling rice hispa.
19.    Plastering of bunds reduced seepage and also weed infestation thereby prevent disease like sheath blight from spreading to main crop.
20.    Farmers have believed that presence of tiger beetle control the population of rice bug.
21.    Farmers use the leaves of ‘Shera Tamul’ in the soil of rice field to prevent the attack of rice stem borer.
22.    Lukeworn water is sprayed on the seedling of boro rice which might enhanced growth of rice seedling.
23.    Neem seed is powdered and tied in a piece of cloth and allow it to dip in water for 24 hrs. The filtrate can be used as insect repellent.
24.    Walking inside rice field cure yellowing of rice.
25.    Seeds of black cumin are kept near storage and house holds to prevent rodent attack. Black cumin has repellant action on rodents.
26.    A preparation of colocasia (Kolakochu) extract along with fresh cowdung is used against case worm.
27.    Fresh cowdung preparation @ 200 g/L is used either as spray or spray against Bacterial leaf blight. Both ‘Kresak’ and leaf blight phase are found to contain by this treatment.

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