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Storage and Post Harvest Technology in Rice

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1.    Paddy grain is stored with fresh leaves of Margosa (Azadirachta indica) to control insect attacks in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Pereira and Sugathadasea(2003)
2.    Some farmers mix cinnamon leaves and wood ash with paddy and store the grain in bags. This practice is prevalent in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  Pereira and Sugathadasea(2003)
3.    Cleaning of threshed paddy is done by using a winnowing basket ‘kula’. This is practiced in West Bengal. Reported by  Anwarul-Haque
4.    The best grains are separated  and collected at the threshing yard  itself for seed purpose. This is practices almost in all the rice growing states. Reported by  Gupta and Patel(1998)
5.    Leaves of Neyveli kattamanakku (Ipomoea carnea fistulosa ) are incorporated  in the seeds of rice  to check storage pests by the farmers in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
6.    Driedchopped leaves of wild tobacco (Lobella nicotionifolia) are mixed with rice to prevent damage by common pests in Tamil Nadu. Reported by   S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
7.    Paddy seeds are treated with Adathoda vasica to prevent against  S.cerealella upto 3 months of storage. This practiced in Tamil nadu. Reported by   S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
8.    In Tamil Nadu, the leaves and plant parts of soap nut powder plant  (Acacia concinna) admixed with rice before storage. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
9.    Leaf powder of Vitex negundo is admixed with paddy to control common storage pests. This is practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
10.    Red pepper (Capsicum Sp) is placed in bags of rice to protect the grains from stored grain pests. This is very popular in Western Tamil Nadu.  Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
11.    Rhizome powder of turmeric (Curcuma longa) is mixed  with paddy and then stored  to control weevils in Tamil nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
12.    Powder of fresh rhizome of Acorus calamus is tied in a piece of cloth and placed in the center of the  rice storage bins  for better storage by the rice farmers in Tamil Nadu. Reported by      S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
13.    Leaves of neem, nochi and pungam are placed between paddy bags to protect against storage pests by farmers in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
14.    For storage pest control, powdered limestone (calcium carbonate) or fine slaked lime (1-2%) are mixed with rice. This is prevalent in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
15.    In Tamil Nadu, coal fly-ash or paddy husk ash are added to paddy and then stored to control storage pests. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
16.    Layers of neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves are spread over grain bulks  and neem fruits  are crushed  into the walls of cribs to control pests in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
17.    Eucalyptus wood ash is added with paddy to protect seeds during storage by farmers of Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
18.    Stored paddy is covered with 25cm thick layer of paddy husk to protect from moisture and pests in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
19.    In Tamil Nadu,  the roots of Derris elliptica are mixed with rice to control Lasiaderma serricorne during storage. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
20.    Large mud pot (single piece) called kuthir  as high as 180 cm are used for storing paddy  for longer periods. Cow dung is pasted inside the kuthir, which increases the keeping quality of grains. This very common in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
21.    Ocimum canum is kept along with the rice grains to prevent the attack of pests by the farmers in Tamil Nadu. Reported by S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
22.    Grains are stored in wooden ‘thomabi’ having the size of 8’x4’x4’. Grains are also stored in wooden kuthir in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
23.    In Tamil Nadu  a  vessel filled with water is kept inside the storing bin to attract and kill  the mother insects.Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
24.    First seeds harvested during September-October are dried and stored in gunny bags. These stored seeds absorb moisture during the ensuing  wet periods of north–east monsoon. Therefore, these seeds are dried in sunshine during January-February called “Thai kaichal” to reduce the moisture and to prevent the insect attack. Afterwards the seeds are stored  in a tight  container  smeared with cow dung paste.  This practice is called Kottai. The kottai  will be stored  till the next  sowing season. The cow dung plastering prevents insect attack but does not hinder the biological  activity of the seed inside. This is practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
25.    Lotus leaves are put in the storage room to prevent pest attack in paddy in Tamil Nadu. Reported by      S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
26.    In Tamil Nadu, pungam (Pongamia pinnata)  leaves are put inside the storage  room which prevent  the insect damage  on stored  paddy grains. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
27.    To avoid pest attack in stored paddy, nochi (Vitex negundo) and pungam  (Pongamia pinnata) leaves are put inside the kuthir in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
28.    To prevent the attack of pests in stored paddy grains, a plant kanjarak korai is kept along with grains, it emanates a pungent smell which drives away the pest. This is prevalent in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
29.    Rice farmers in Tamil Nadu believes  that the germination percentage reduces if the paddy grains are stored near chillies or store gunny bags in which chillies were stored previously. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
30.    Farmers spread the seeds in the threshing floor or the drying yard, during the waxing   moon days of Tamil month ‘Thai’ and keep the seeds for 7 days  both during  the night and day. The seeds absorb the dew   during night  and dries during the daytime. This practice improves the seed quality and grain yield. Reported by S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
31.    The grain or seed infested with the storage pest (rice weevil) are fumigated with biogas at the rate of 10 liters at 1.4 kg/cm2 pressure directly from biogas plant. Reported by  S. Ganeshamurthy(2000)
32.    Tribal people of village Kantharia of Jhadol, dist Udaipur in Rajasthan use pora a grain storage structure made of bamboo. Kantharia village is situated in Aravalli hills where bamboo is easily available. Therefore bamboo strips are used to prepare pora for grain storage. The pora is 6 feet high with 3 feet diameter and have 5-6 quitals storing capacity. For preparation of pora, at least 80 bamboo sticks are required. Inside the house, stone slab is balanced on 3 stones. The slabs should be at least 9 inches high from the ground. On the stone slab pora is structured. Slurry of cow dung and gomutra are smeared inside with the coating of fine ash. Such coating is provided to absorb moisture and repel stored grain pests. Such type of pora is cheap, suitable for all weather, moisture proof, resistance to rodent damage, easy to shift and covers less space in house. Wheat, rice and maize are safely stored in it for 1 year. Reported by  Nanoo Ram(2004)
33.    Chola kuzhi,  is a grain storage structure  made by digging a pit at the ground level. Size of the pit is 5 m long and 5 m wide. Cow dung and thumbai leaf (Leucas aspera) extract are coated along the walls of the pit. Cereals and millets are stored and the opening is closed with lid. This is practied in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  V. Punithavathi(2004)
34.    Farmers of Khai Khera village in district Bareilly of Uttar Pradesh keep 3 kg neem (Azadiracta indica) leaves in 1 q grain, which keeps the grain safe for minimum 1 year. Reported by  Krishna(2004)
35.    About 50 gram pepper is packed in a muslin cloth or ordinary cloth and  placed in rice grain. Pepper smell drives away any storage pest. This practice is used for increasing the quality of rice in storage. This practiced in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Reported by  P. Krishnamurthy(2004)
36.    Tatho is made of bamboo sticks and cow dung is applied to seal hole. It can be used as sheet or sometimes rolled into a structure. Paddy or rice can be stored. Sometimes as a sheet it can be used for drying.    Reported by  Samrjeethsingh(2004)
37.    There is a great loss of stored paddy grains due to rice moth in Assam, which deteriorates the quality. Use of chemical or synthetic pesticides for preserving stored grains is injurious to health. Therefore Shri Siwas conducted an experiment to check the effectiveness of herbal plants to control the rice moth and other pests in stored grains. In this experiment, leaves and branches of Croton tiglium (konibih) and Azadiracta indica (mohaneem) are mixed, and spread at the bottom, between and at upper surface in the stored paddy grains. This practice was found to control rice moth to a great extent. Reported by  Siwas Mousam(2004)
38.    After harvesting, good and healthy seeds are selected with care to store them for next season. To store grains, a storage structure, i.e. bin is used. At the time of seed storage, notchi (Vitex negundo), neem (Azadiracta indica) and pungam (Pongamia pinnata) leaves are mixed. Apart from mixing, a few leaves are spread at the top of seeds. On the top of it waste paper and paddy straw are spread to cover the surface. This is practiced in Tamil Nadu. Reported by  R. Govindaswamy(2004)
39.    Farmers of Narkuda village, Rajendranagar, Ranga Reddy,  Andhra Pradesh store paddy in earthen pots. First they dry paddy under the sun and then keep in earthen pots, and put hay at the top and apply cowdung to seal the pot. Nearly 2 kg hay is required to cover. This method,  storing costs Rs. 250/pot of 50 kg capacity. Nearly 40-50 percent of the families in the village are practicing this technology. The farmers reported that seeds of paddy stored by this method remain viable for 2 years with good quality. Reported by  A. Sankharyya(2004)
40.    Mora- a grain storage structure is used  by the farmers of Jharkhand  to store rice for longer time, which protects grain from moisture, rodents and storage insect pests. The capacities vary from 0.1 to 2.0 tons. Reported by  Ashian Jojo(2004)
41.    Paddy seed is sun dried for 2-3 days continuously and then  stored  in gunny bags on indigenously made 4-5 feet stand  to prevent  pest infestation. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
42.    Seed for consumption purpose are stored  in big size  storage structure called ‘Gadhi’  with a capacity  of 100-150 kunchas  (300-450 kgs) of paddy seed. This is practiced in Andhra Pradesh. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
43.    Paddy seed is stored in small containers with bamboo called as ‘butta’ (in Telugu). The container is filled with paddy seed and covered with straw and then closed with cow dung paste. This is practiced in Andhra Pradesh. Reported by  K. Lakshmana(2003)
44.    Control of moth and weevil infestation in paddy .For every  50 kg  of grain storage, 200 gram salt is placed. In a bag  of 100 kg paddy, 200gram  of salt  is added after  filling 50 kg  and the remaining   50 kg  of grain  is filled  by addition of 200 gram salt  for every 50 kgs  grain  to control  the moth  and weevil  infestation in paddy. Reported by  G. Chandra Sekahar(2004)

File Courtesy: 
Indigenous Technical Knowledge in Rice Cultivation. P. Muthuraman and Shaik. N. Meera
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