Variations in most soil properties in the state are closely related to their position on the landscape. the brief characteristics of soil of three agro-climatic zones are given below,
Chhattisgarh Plains :
Moving down the slope, there is an increase in soil depth, water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity and preponderance of calcium and magnecium ions. The soil so developed have been classified in to four soil orders that widely differ in their production potential and physical characteristics. They are locally called, bhata (Entisols), matasi (Inceptisols), dorsa (alfisols) and kanhar (vertisols).
In bastar plateau the land is undulating and hence the soil vary considerably from top of the hillock to the valley. The soil type in bastar district vary from Marhan (Entisols) to Gabhar (Vertisols). Gabhar is the valley portion of the undulating terrain. In between these two Tikra (Inceptisols) and Mal (Alfisols) soil exist.
Northern Hills :
The most common soils are described locally on account of their occurrence, management and physical properties. These are: Eroded hilly soils which are covered mostly by forest, Goda/tikra (light soils), Goda chawar (Medium), chawar and Bahra soils. Chawar soils are found in low land bunded fields where rice is grown. In bahra soils (extreme lowlands) water flows continuously till January.