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Package of Practices
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Biasi system of land preparation in Bastar

1. Biasi is a set of cultural operations traditionally practiced in direct seeded rice.

2. In this operation, the field is ploughed by an indigenous plow in standing water 30–50 d after emergence.

3. Bullock plowing often followed planking and chalai (thinning and distribution) operations.

4. This system is very popular in the eastern region of India. The effectiveness of the system greatly affects yield. Often, operation is delayed because there is less rain to flood the field.

5. The post-biasi operation, which is done to redistribute seedlings, has high labor requirements and is costly. The other major drawbacks are high plant mortality (38–40%) and heavy weed intensity.


Nutrient management in transplanting system of rice cultivation

1. Nitrogen levels: 100-120 kg N/ha: 50-60 Kg P/ha: 40-50 Kg K/ha.

2. Application of urea in four splits i.e., 10:30:30:30 or 20:30:20:30 as basal, at tillering, PI and preflowering stage, respectively increased the grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency in medium duration varieties grown in matasi (Sandy loam) soil.

3. The use of soil treated (conditioned) urea @ 1:3 applied 30% at planting, 40% tillering and 30% at PI was found comparable to USG and SCU in Dorsa soil (clay-loan) for medium duration rice varieties.

4. In heavy soil, apply N 50% basal, 25% at tillering and 25% at PI stage of the crop.

5. All P and K should be applied as basal dressing. The K may be also applied in the ratio of 60:40 as basal and at PI stage of rice.

6. FYM or compost @ 8-10 t/ha should be applied 10-12 days before seeding or the green manure crop of 30-35 days should be incorporated in field before field preparation for transplanting.


Nutrient Management in Biasi (Beushning) system of rice cultivation

1. Apply 100-120 Kg N: 50-60 Kg P: 40-50 Kg K /ha to high yielding varieties.

2. In medium to heavy soil, N should be applied in three splits in the ratio of 30:40:30 or 25:50:25 at biasi, maximum tillering and PI stage (where herbicide is not used).

3. In light soils, N should be applied in four splits in the ratio of 10:40:40:10 as basal, at biasi, PI stage and pre flowering stages, respectively (where herbicide is not used).

4. Where pre-emergence application of herbicides have been use apply N in 4 splits in the ratio of 15-25, 30-40, 25-30 and 25-30 as basal, initial tillering, maximum tillering and PI stages.

5. Whole amount of P and K should be applied as basal dressing.

6. FYM or compost @ 8-10 t/ha should be applied 10-12 days before seeding.


Nutrient management in line sowing method of rice cultivation

1. Level: Early variety – 60-90 kg N/ha: 40-50 Kg P/ha: 30-40 Kg K/ha. Medium vareity - 100-120 kg N/ha: 50-60 Kg P/ha: 40-50 Kg K/ha 2. Apply N 20% in light soil and 30% in heavy soils as basal drilled along or by the side of the seed followed by 40% at tillering and 40% at PI stage for higher yields. 3. In light soils and in medium and late duration varieties splits application of nitrogen in the ratio of 20:30:25:25 as basal, active tillering, maximum tillering and PI or pre flowering stage proved more effective. 4. In heavy soil (Irrigated condition), apply N 50% basal, 25% at tillering and 25% at PI stage of the crop. 5. FYM compost: All P and K should be applied as basal dressing. The K may be applied in the ratio of 60:40 as basal and at PI stage of rice.

Nursery raising

1. Wet bed method:

Wet nurseries are preffered under irrigated conditions.

The soil is puddle by two to three runs of puddler or three to four ploughings with local plough. After one or two days of puddling, divide the nursery areas in to narrow beds of 1.25 m width and of any convient length depending upon the slope.

Construct drainage chhanels 30 cm wide in between the seed beds. Apply 225 g ammonium sulphate and 500g ssp per 100 square meter.

Uniformly broadcast about two to three handful of seed on a square meter of seed bed. Keep the seed bed saturated with water for first five days and then increase gradually the level of water up to 5 cm. drain the excess water in periods of heavy rains during the first week of sowing.seedling were ready for transplanting at an age of 20-25 days.

2. Dry bed method:

This method is practiced in areas where water is not sufficient to grow seedlings in wet nurseries. Plough the field three to four times till the soil thoroughly pulverized.

Prepare bed of 15 cm high width channel (30 cm wide) between them.sow seed in rows 10cm apart i8n dry or moist condition of soil. Sown seed is immediately covered with soil.

Allow water to run in channels first and then raise the level of water slowly to saturate the soil of beds. Keep seed bed saturated with water although. Maintain a thin film of water if possible after 5 days of sowing.


Utera system of Cultivation

Under the rice-utera(paira) cropping system, rice linseed, rice alone, rice lentil and rice chickpea.

In deep water areas, rich fish farming has also been evaluated at several places in the region. Rice-lathyrus and rice linseed is common.

Rice-wheat system:  This cropping system is predominant in large areas under rainfed shallow lowland.

Rice-lentil system

Rice-chickpea system:  The cropping pattern appears to be feasible in the drought prone areas where more than 95% of the area is monocropped with rice.

Rice-rice system A considerable number of rainfed lowland and deep water farmers practice this cropping system by by accumulated surface water.

Integrated fish farming culture:

 Integrated rice fish culture is a farming system, where both rice and fish are raised simultaneously in the same field to increase farm income.


Rice growing soils of Chhattisgarh state

Variations in most soil properties in the state are closely related to their position on the landscape. the brief characteristics of soil of three agro-climatic zones are given below,

Chhattisgarh Plains :

Moving down the slope, there is an increase in soil depth, water holding capacity, cation exchange capacity and preponderance of calcium and magnecium ions. The soil so developed have been classified in to four soil orders that widely differ in their production potential and physical characteristics. They are locally called, bhata (Entisols), matasi (Inceptisols), dorsa (alfisols) and kanhar (vertisols).

Bastar Plateau:

In bastar plateau the land is undulating and hence the soil vary considerably from top of the hillock to the valley. The soil type in bastar district vary from Marhan (Entisols) to Gabhar (Vertisols). Gabhar is the valley portion of the undulating terrain. In between these two Tikra (Inceptisols) and Mal (Alfisols) soil exist.

Northern Hills :

The most common soils are described locally on account of their occurrence, management and physical properties. These are: Eroded hilly soils which are covered mostly by forest, Goda/tikra (light soils), Goda chawar (Medium), chawar and Bahra soils. Chawar soils are found in low land bunded fields where rice is grown. In bahra soils (extreme lowlands) water flows continuously till January.


Rice growing season of state Chhattisgarh

 Seasonal name : Kharif                                                 

Local name:  kharif                         

Sowing time: June- July

Harvesting time : Oct-Nov


Seasonal name:  Rabi/summer

Local name:  Rabi/summer

Sowing time: Nov. - feb

Harvesting time : April-May


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