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Package of Practices
  • A compendium of state specific and location specific recommended package of practices are provided under this head. You may be interested to see that, thanks to our IP based customisation, that only your state (the state from where you are accessing RKMP) specific information is available.
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Wooden hammer (Muthla)


1. Wooden made hammer just like iron hammer, but longer in size, having with 3-3.5 fit wooden handle, lower wooden log is of 2-2.5 kg.

2. After ploughing villagers use it for breaking big clods on field.


Hullers / Rice mills

1. Cleaned paddy on an average yields 72 percent rice, 22 percent husk and 6 percent bran.

2. The traditional hand pounding or foot pounding (Dhenki) has now become noncompetitive. The rice hullers, shellers and modern rice mills have gained popularity.

3. Hullers seldom give about 65 percent total yields with 20-30 percent broken besides, it does not give completely cleaned rice.

4. The most modern rice mills (single Pass) are available in 2-4 tons per hour capacity. The mini modern rice mills are available with capacity of 150-550 kg per hour and yields higher recovery.

5. The modern rice mills give yield recovery of 70 percent with a grain breakage of 10 percent only.


Grain discoloration


1. This occur at the time of panicle initation stage.

2. At this time normal grain color changes to brownish white color.


1. Seed treatment with Bavistin (0.2%) or vitavax (0.2%) for 6 hrs.

2. Spary bavistin 0.1 %


Winnowing fans

1. The hand operated and power operated winnowing fans are commercially available.

2. The paddy threshed by manual beating or by pedal operated paddy thresher is cleaned by using these fans.

3. These winnowing fans consist of frame either made up of wood, angle iron, welded steel or combination of the two along with driving mechanisms namely, sprocket and chain, belt and pulleys and single or double reduction gears.

Traditional winnowing fan:

4. Base of fan is of wooden frame like iron winnowing fan and blades are made of iron sheet with curve in ride of blades. It is for winnowing purpose in remote farmers.


Khaira disease


1. Usually in nursery; chlorotic/ yellow patches at leaf base on both sides of the midrib; restricted root growth and usually main roots turn brown.


1. Use 25kg Znso4/ha before transplanting or sowing at time of land preparation.

2. If crop is infected then use 5 kg Znso4 + 25 kg lime in 600-700 litre water per hectare.


Threshing Roller


1. The Special quality of mahua (Madhuca indica) wood tends to use it intensively for this purpose.

2. It is two side axel rollers, which is fitted in grooves of plank connecting the bullocks.

3. Mahua is heavy in weight and also available near village.


Biasi system of land preparation in Bastar

1. Biasi is a set of cultural operations traditionally practiced in direct seeded rice.

2. In this operation, the field is ploughed by an indigenous plow in standing water 30–50 d after emergence.

3. Bullock plowing often followed planking and chalai (thinning and distribution) operations.

4. This system is very popular in the eastern region of India. The effectiveness of the system greatly affects yield. Often, operation is delayed because there is less rain to flood the field.

5. The post-biasi operation, which is done to redistribute seedlings, has high labor requirements and is costly. The other major drawbacks are high plant mortality (38–40%) and heavy weed intensity.



1. Good packaging provides not only convenient handling in transportation and storage but also attracts consumers to pay more. Packaging is essential to avoid spoilage and to prolong the quality.

2. Packaging of paddy/rice is also important for long-term storage to fulfill the demand of old rice in the market, particularly in case of Basmati and non-parboiled rice. Paddy/rice, if kept in open, quality may be adversely affected.

3. Packaging is closely related to labeling and branding. In present scenario, branding and labeling of rice has significant impact on consumer preference. More care is required in packaging of rice meant for export.

4. This is because of demonstrative effect and the requirements of consumers in different countries; exporters have now started using transparent, colourful and attractive packaging.

For good packaging, the packages must possesses following qualities:

a.It must protect rice very well and should be long lasting.

b.It must look clean.

c. It must be convenient to handle and carry out from the store easily.

d.It must attract the consumer.

e.It must be easily identifiable.

f.It must resist spoiling.

g.It must tell information about rice i.e. name and address of packer, pack-size (quantity), quality (grade), variety and date of packing etc.

Method of packing :

The graded rice should be packed in new, clean, sound and dry jute bags, cloth bags, polywoven bags, polyethylene, polypropylene, high molecular high density polyethylene paper packages or in other food grade plastic/packaging materials.

The packages shall be free from insect infestation, fungus contamination, deleterious substances and undesirable or obnoxious smell. Each package shall be securely closed and suitably sealed. Each package shall contain rice of one grade only.

The rice shall be packed in quantities as specified under the provisions of the Standards of Weights and Measu


False smut

Causal organism:- ustilago noidea virus


1. False smut start as light green ball of spores covered by a thin silver colored skin. The balls erupt exposing the orange spores.

2. As time passes spores turn dark green to black. Damage from smuts occur due to contamination of other grains by spores during harvest, miiling causing quality problems and discoloration during paraboiling and cooking.


1. Excessive nitrogen increases diseases.

2. Use resistant varities

3. At early stage of panicle initiation or at 50% flowering use mancozeb 0.25% or diethane M 45 ot copper oxychloride 25kg/ltr.


Improved storage structures

1. Improved bins: Different organisations developed and designed improved storage structures for scientific storage of foodgrains, which are moisture resistant and rodent-proof.

2. Brick-build godowns: These are made by brick-walls with cemented flooring for storing paddy/rice in bulk and bags.

3. Cement plastered bamboo bin: This bin developed by Post Harvest Technology Centre, Kharagpur, in which bamboo strips are used to form the skeleton of the bin and cement-sand mortar (1:2.5 ratio) is plastered on outer and inner surface of the bin.

4. CAP (Cover and plinth) storage: It is an economical way of storage on a large scale. The plinth is made by cement concrete and bags are staked on open and covered by polythene cover.

5. Silos: Silos are used for storage of foodgrains. These are made from concrete, bricks and metallic materials with loading and unloading equipment.

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