1. These soils usually occur on gently undulating plain or complex geological material comprising of gneisses. This type of soil occupies areas in parts of Bijapur, Dharwad, Belgaum, Raichur, Bellary and Chitradurga districts.
2. Usually red soils resemble the red sandy soils of midland region in physicchemical properties and black soils resemble the medium and deep black soils in physicchemical characteristics.
3. These soils are classified under the orders Alfisols, Vertisols a
1. Low lands soils of red sandy soils are partially deposited soils occurring on very gentle slope to nearly level or flat valley bottom areas, are deep to very deep, dark brown to very dark brown, sandy loam sandy clay loamand occasionally clay loam soils on the surface and sandy clay loam to clayey soils in the sub-surface horizons.
2. They are neutral to weakly alkaline, noncalcarious to calcarious and have medium to high cation exchange capacity and base saturation.
3. The water ho
1. Midlands soils of red sandy soils occur on gently sloping midlands in gneissic complex region. These are deep to very deep, reddish brown to dark reddish brown, loamy sand to sandy loam or sandy clay loam on the surface with sandy clay to gravelly clay in the sub-surface horizon with well developed argillic (clay rich) horizon.
2. They are neutral to acidic in reaction and low to medium in cation exchange capacity and base saturation with medium to high water holding capacity.
1. Midlands soils of red sandy Soils occur on gently sloping midlands in gneissic complex region. These are deep to very deep, reddish brown to dark reddish brown, loamy sand to sandy loam or sandy clay loam on the surface with sandy clay to gravelly clay in the sub¬surface horizon with well developed argillic (clay rich) horizon.
2. They are neutral to acidic in reaction and low to medium in cation exchange capacity and base saturation with medium to high water holding capaci
1. Upland soils of red sandy soils are usually situated on convex ridges with 3-5 per cent gradient or more. The soils are shallow to moderately deep, reddish brown to dark reddish brown, gravelly loamy sand to sandy loam on the surface with sandy loam to gravelly sand clay in the subsurface horizons.
2. They are neutral to slightly acidic in reaction and low in cation exchange capacity, base saturation and water holding capacity but well drained with rapid permeability.
1. These soils occur on undulating landscape on acidic rock viz. Granites and granite gneisses, occupying areas in parts of Dharwad, Bellary, Chitradurga, Shimoga, Bangalore, Tumkur, Mandya and Mysore districts of the State.
2. The soils of this type can further be sub¬divided into the following three groups occupying on distinct topographic sites with varying physicochemical properties.
b) Midland, and
c) Low land soils
1. These soils occur in Deccan trap lime stone regions, in parts of Gulbarga, Bijapur and Belgaum districts and considerable areas in parts of Raichur, Bellary, Dharwad, Chitradurga, and Mysore districts.
2. These are very deep (more than 90 cm), dark brown, dark greyish brown to very dark grey or black in colour. The texture is usually clayey throughout the profile.
3. These are calcareous and are weakly to strongly alkaline, highly cracking montmorillonitic clayey soils. These a
1. These soils usually occur in the Deccan trap, schist, lime stone and shale region of the state, occupying areas in parts of Bidar, Gulbarga, Bijapur and Belgaum districts and to some extent on peninsular gneiss area in Raichur, Chitradurga and Dharwad districts.
2. These soils are moderately deep to very deep (23-90 cm), dark to very dark in greyish brown, dark reddish brown or black in colour, usually calcareous, cracking, clayey soils.
3. These are highly moisture retentive,
1. These shallow soils are usually encountered on undulating ridges in the Deccan trap region and to some extent on schist and lime stone upland region of Karnataka, occupying areas in north and north-west parts of the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, Gulbarga and Bidar.
2. These are shallow (less than 23 cm), dark greyish brown, dark brown to dark reddish browm, usually calcareous, with gravelly clay loam to clay in texture.
3. They are neutral to weakly alkaline and have moderate
1. A scientific knowledge of soils is a pre-requisite to understand the local ecology and useful in planning for agricultural development.
2. As per the updated soil survey data, the soils of Karnataka have been broadly classified under nine groups.
The characteristics and distribution of these nine soil groups in different parts of Karnataka are as follows:
1. Shallow Black Soils .
2. Medium Black Soils.
3.Deep Black Soils.
4.Red Sandy Soils.