Major Rice growing seasons of Karnataka can be broadly classified into three seasons, viz., kharif, Hingaaru, Besige.
1. kharif (Mungaaru in Kannada) (June-July) : In all the rice growing ecosystems of Karnataka Kharif sowing is common. while during Summer season the crop is cultivated mainly in the irrigated maidan areas of north and south.
2. Hingaaru (Rabi) season: In tank-fed areas, the crop is taken up late in the season (August-September) (called Hingaaru in Kannada) dependi
1. The effect of FYM application was found to be comparable or even superior to lime amendment on the acidic soils which seemed mainly due to the formation of A1-organo-chellates, resulting in the reduction of A1 concentration in soil solution to levels beneficial to plant growth.
2. Similarly, in the red soils of Hyderabad, the average increase in rice yield due to NPK+FYM was 17-21 percent in both Kharif and Rabi seasons.
3. These and other results suggest that substitution of 25-50 per
1. Organic manuring also improves the physical and microbial conditions of soil and enhances fertilizer use efficiency when applied in conjunction with mineral fertilizers. Thus, all the major sources of plant nutrients such as soil, mineral, organic and biological should be utilized in an efficient and judicious manner for sustainable crop production in rice-rice cropping system.
2. Several studies have been conducted on the complementary use of organic and mineral fertilisers in cropp
1. Highest yields of Kharif and Rabi rice were obtained with application of green manure and N application. Long-term experiments have shown that neither organic sources nor mineral fertilizers alone can achieve sustainability in crop production.
2. Continuous use of FYM is effective in stabilizing rice productivity under low to medium cropping intensity where the nutrient demand is relatively small.
3. Integrated use of organic and mineral fertilizers has been found to be more effective
1. Intensive rice cropping with short-duration high-yielding varieties along with increased use of mineral fertilizers and improved irrigation facilities have resulted in spectacular increases in crop productivity.
2. This has, however, led to gradual replacement of organic manures as sources of plant nutrients. There has been a sharp increase in the prices of P and K fertilizers following withdrawal of subsidy, which was led to their decreased consumption by the farmers.
1. This occupies an area of 0.21 m ha with the productivity of 2.53 t/ha. It comprises Raichur, Bellary, Haveri, Koppal, Dharwad, Gulbarga and Belgaum districts.
2. Major source of irrigation in Raichur, Bellary, Haveri and Koppal districts is Tungabhadra Project.
3. This region receives an annual rainfall of 600 mm only. The rice soils vary from black cotton type to mostly lighter black to reddish in colour.
4. These soils exhibit a fair degree of fertility and are genera
1. Irrigated maidan area (South) ecosystem occupies an area of 0.18 m ha, with the productivity of 2.59 t/ha. This includes the canal irrigated areas of Mandya, Mysore, Hassan, Chamarajanagar and parts of Shimoga, Davanagere and Chitradurga districts.
2. This area receives an annual rainfall of 778 mm. The soils are mostly red in colour, sandy to loamy in texture and rich in potash. It has two main season viz., the kharif (June-July to November-December) and summer (January-February t
1. The area under rice in tank-fed area is around 0.15 m ha with the productivity of 2.48 t/ha. This region includes the districts of Kolar, Bangalore, Tumkur and parts of Hassan. It covers 11.0 per cent of the area under rice.
2. This area receives an average annual rainfall of about 760 mm. Tanks get filled during October November.
3. The irrigation is through tank water only. Generally two crops are grown. This region is unique that rice is
grown on semi-dry cum wet crop called Punaji
1. This is the drill sown rice area, comprising Belgaum, Dharwar and parts of North canara districts. It has a total of 0.19 m ha. (14.4 per cent of the area under rice) with 1.12 t/ha of productivity. This area is unique in that rice is direct seeded over 90 per cent of the area.
2. The crop is direct seeded under relatively dry conditions and the fields remain unflooded for most part of the period. The region receives an annual rainfall of 619 to 1303 mm.
3. The soils vary from
1. A total of 0.26 m ha is under rice with the productivity of 1.98 t/ha. The hill region which includes Coorg, Chikmagalur and parts of Hassan district is completely under the regime of monsoon.
2. The area receives rainfall from May to October. The annual precipitation of this region is around 1600 mm or higher. The temperature variation is also much greater (13o c to 36o c) in hilly region than in other regions of the state.
3. Soils are mostly laterites, poor in lime and acid