|Package of Practices
- A compendium of state specific and location specific recommended package of practices are provided under this head. You may be interested to see that, thanks to our IP based customisation, that only your state (the state from where you are accessing RKMP) specific information is available.
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- With excellent cultural practices, the spacing may be slightly wider, say 20x15 cms but under sub-normal conditions, the spacing should be slightly narrower, say 15x10 cms.
- Under good management and adequate nitrogen levels, the optimum spacing for varieties should be around 20x10 cms both for kharif and rabi crops.
Adopt proper spacing & ensure adequate plant population
- At 2-5 leaf stage (20-25 days age) , uproot the nursery, trim the tips of seedlings and transplant.
- Crop establishment is a very important part and hence utmost care is needed to ensure good crop establishment.
- Synchronous planting should be followed which enables efficient use of irrigation, and reduces
- incidence of pests.
- Seedlings should be uproooted from the nursery without damaging the roots and with minimal
- Make sure that the seedlings are not mixed with weed seedlings.
- Line transplanting should be followed as it helps in better crop growth and intercultural operations.
- Generally recommended spacing is 15x10 or 20x10 cm.
- Proper spacing should be followed between two seedlings to ensure that competition for nutrients
- will not be there
- In case of Direct Seeding, sowing should be done after proper puddling and levelling the land.
- Direct sowing is practiced in areas with lower rainfall or areas with water and labor scarcity.
- Nursery should be prepared nearer to the mainfield so as to minimize the shock during transplanting.
- Utmost care should be taken while preparing the nursery as it is the place where rice seedlings grow and establish themselves.
- Prepare the type of nursery based on your resources such as water, type of soil etc eg : Wet bed method is practiced in areas of water abundance and Dry bed method is practiced in areas of less water and where the soil is loamy or clayey.
- Appropriate seed rate (15-20 kg/ha) should be used based on the variety/ hybrid selected. Farmers use very high seed rate, which is not required and wasteful.
- For good preparation of your nursery, Plough the soil thoroughly 3 to 4 times and level it perfectly. Make channels for irrigation water and drainage.
- Incorporate one tonne compost/FYM per 1000 m2 bed during last ploughing/puddling.
- Broadcast the sprouted seed 5kg /100 sq.mt of soil. Make sure the seeds are free from weed seeds. For 200 sq.mt of nursery bed apply 2kg. Nitrogen (1kg at the time of broadcasting the seed and another after 12 to 14 days) 1kg P2O5 and 1kg Potash. In cold prone areas apply double dose.
- Allow it to dry for some time and give slight irrigation at first leaf stage.
- Weeding should be done once in 15-20 days as it helps seedlings grow effectively without competition for nutrients, water etc.
- If zinc deficiency is noticed spray 2 g ZnSO4 dissolved in 1 liter of water. In case of dry nursery if Iron deficiency is noticed spray 20 g / 1 lt. (2%) ferrous sulphate solution.
- Protect your Nursery against bird damage of seed by netting or taking colour ribbons.
- Apply Carbofuran 3 G granules 10 days after broadcasting the seed per cent of nursery @160g or Monocrotophos 1.6ml or Chloropyriphos @ 2.0 ml per liter of water. Apply Carbofuran 3 G granules @ 160 g per 40 sq.mt of nursery week&nbs
The seed rate naturally influences the growth of the seedlings. Thin sowing gives strong and tillered seedlings, whereas thick sowing results in thin and tall seedlings without tillers.Thin sowing in nurseries is always better and it will produce strong and sturdy seedlings, which can withstand adverse climatic conditions better and produce better yields. Therefore, 40 to 60 grams of seed per square metre should be sown in the nursery beds. About 500 square metre area of nursery is sufficient to transplant one hectare area. In case of late sowing of nursery, the nursery area should be increased to 750-1000 square metre.
- Select good quality & high density seed of a variety/ hybrid suitable to the location/season.
- Varieties should be selected based on the environment and the season in which they are to be grown.
- The most suitable variety is the one that best meets the farmer and the consumer’s needs. It may not always give the highest yield and the choice will be influenced by availability of water, either from rain or irrigation, soil type, field elevation and whether the rice will be sold or consumed at home.
- Select varieties resistant to pests and diseases, if the area is prone to endemic diseases/ pests. In case, there are problem soils such as acidic or salinity, varieties which are suitable for specific soils (say saline tolerant varieties) should be selected.
- Varieties which are already grown in the area and having good yield records should be selected. In case new varieties/ hybrids are to be grown, enquire about their performance in FLDs or on-farm trials.
- We should go for new varieties initially on trial basis, and if it works out well it can be cultivated in the whole area.
Good quality seed reduces the required seed rate, produces strong healthy seedlings which results in a more uniform crop and higher yields.
Good seed is
- clean - no stones or soil, weed seed,
- pure - only seeds from one variety,
- healthy - full big grains, same color, no cracks or spots
- Select good quality seeds which are free from seed borne pests, diseases and weeds.
- Select seeds which are bold, uniform in size and filled completely.
- Seeds should be soaked in salt water and remove immature and chaffy seeds. Select only bold seeds and wash thoroughly with clean water for 2 - 3 times and dry under shade.
- If seeds are farmer grown it should undergo germination test before using for sowing.
- Select seeds which have good germination rate (> 85%).
- Get seeds from reliable sources like government agencies or certified private companies, Agricultural universities, KVK’s,Agricultural research stations etc.,
- Before seeds are sown they should be treated with either
- fungicides like Carbondazim, Dithane M 45 @ 2.5 g/kg of seed (or) Cartap @ 2.5 g/kg of seed.
- They can also be treated with bio control agents like Pseudomonas fluorescens @ 10 gm per kg of seed etc.
A well prepared and leveled field gives a uniform,healthy crop that can compete with weeds, uses less water and gives higher yields at a lower cost.
A well prepared field has:
- Many small soil clods to give good seed ‘soil contact’
- No weeds
- Harder layer at 10 cm to stop water percolation
- Level and smooth surface after puddling
- Well-constructed bunds
- Land preparation is done by ploughing, harrowing, and levelling the field to make it suitable for crop establishment.
- Ploughing should be done 3-4 weeks prior to sowing.
- Plough your field upto 12-15 cms deep and make sure the weeds and the stubbles get incorporated in the soil and get decomposed. This is necessary to avoid the self sown seeds to grow and become admixtures.
- Draft animals, such as oxen, 2-wheel tractors or 4-wheel tractors or rotavator can all be used for ploughing the land effectively.
- Implements used for ploughing are mouldboard plough, disc plough, sub- soiler etc.
- After ploughing, harrowing the field should be done twice, with one week gap between the two. First harrowing should be done after 1 week of ploughing. The second harrowing should be done across the first harrowing.
- Implements used for harrowing are Spike tooth harrow, Chain harrow, Disc harrow, Inter-cultivating harrow.
- Generally rice fields are first flooded with water before tillage. This tillage of flooded soil is referred to as puddling. Puddling is very efficient in clay soils that form deep cracks penetrating the plough pan at about 15 to 20 cm soil depth during the period of soil drying before land preparation.
- Land should be levelled after ploughing and harrowing is done so as to avoid undulating topography which leads to uneven distribution of water and others. Levelling with laser leveler helps in saving water and ensure uniform crop growth.
- The land should be submerged in 2-5 cms of standing water so that pudding is done and decomposition of organic matter occurs soon.
- Bunds should be prepared and cleaned thoroughly to check weed growth as they harbour pests and diseases.
- Bunds should be compacted to prevent seepage, and properly maintained
A crop calendar is a picture of your rice growing season: crop production from the fallow, land preparation, crop establishment and maintenance through to harvest and storage. By using a crop calendar, farm activities are better planned, done at the right time and it is easier to organize labor and obtain inputs such as seed and fertilizer. Better planning will decrease input costs and increase yields.
To create a crop calendar, consider following steps1. Determine the best date to plant.2. Determine the time the variety takes from planting to harvest (short duration <120, medium duration 120-140, long duration >140 days plus).3. Mark on the calendar the date of planting and when each other operation needs to be done. (Ploughing, weeding, fertilizing, harvesting).
“Using a cropping calendar improves the timeliness and reduces