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Production Know How
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19
Jul

Role of aromatic rice in the export earnings

India is one of the important countries in the world in export of rice. India's exports are expected to go up further during current financial year. Hence, Indian rice exports are set to reach second place in the world markets after Thailand edging out Vietnam in the process as per the report of the Food and Agricultural Organisation. Basmati export market is a lucrative area. Though India and Pakistan enjoy to have the maximum shares in this market, competitors from others countries are already coming up.

Basmati varieties have special characteristics that cannot be found anywhere else in the world. Rice export from India constitutes the major share of Basmati rice. Nearly two-third of Basmati rice produced in India is exported. Basmati rice is the leading aromatic fine quality rice of the world trade and it fetches good export price in the international markets. Infact, Basmati rice is a gift from "Mother Nature" to the Indian sub-continent and grows in the Indo-Gangatic plains only. Basmati rice being novel product is characterized by its unique grain size, aroma and cooking qualities. Being high value product, it has got good export demand. Hence, the export has been very high and exports have been steadily growing. During the year 2000-01, Basmati rice export touched an all time high record figure of 8.52 lakh mt (provisional) showing on increase of 62.9% over 1996-97. 

The percentage share of export value of Basmati rice in the food grains export earnings was 76.10 per cent during 1993-94. About 60-70 per cent of the total Basmati production in the country exported every year to the international market mainly Saudi-Arabia, U.A.E, Kuwait, Oman, Russia, U.K and U.S.A. During 1997-98, India exported around 581791.0 metric tones of Basmati rice. There is vast scope for further expansion of Basmati rice export, provided we could supply to farmers dwarf high yielding Basmati varieties along with appropriate production technolog
19
Jul

Status of rice production and its requirement by 2030

The rice is a staple food and continuous supply is to be maintained to the consumers. To ensure regular supply of the food grain proper steps are required to be taken in advance. If supply is not maintained uninterrupted than there are chances of a large number of human population drowning in perpetual hunger. About 1 billion households depend on rice cultivation for employment and their main source of livelihood. As the rice consuming population continues to grow, and the land and water resources needed for rice production diminish, we may face a potential crisis. World rice production has been less than rice consumption since 2000. This insufficiency has been addressed by drawing on rice from buffer stock. In this context, advances in science and technology, as well as rice research, are increasingly critical to enhance rice production and sustainable agricultural development. Ensuring an increase in sustainable rice production will require innovation and cooperation within the scientific community, as well as commitment and shared responsibility among all stakeholders.

Paddy rice and wheat could have an equivalent share in global cereals production till 2030. Paddy rice and wheat is estimated to account for 2/3 of the cereals production. Both paddy rice and wheat should be the dominant cereal food in the world before 2030. Per capita cereals production for developed countries, wheat would amount to 1/3 of cereals and paddy rice has a very low proportion, which demonstrates that wheat should be the dominant cereal crop in these countries. Unlike developed countries, paddy rice is expected to be the dominant cereal crop (1/2) and wheat is just 1/2 of paddy rice in developing countries per capita production.
 Paddy rice yield would increase by 2030 to 24.7 to 35.5% and reach 5.28 to 5.73 metric tones/hectare (mt ha-1). Paddy rice production in developing countries is estimated to grow at annual rate of 9, 476, 885 mt, much higher than developed
19
Jul

Aromatic rice growing regions

Basmati rices have been traditionally cultivated in northern India, confined mainly to Punjab, Haryana, Western Uttar Pradesh and adjoining districts of Rajasthan. It is said that Basmati grows best and produces best quality grains under warm, humid, valley like conditions. Experience has also shown that when true Basmati varieties are cultivated outside these traditional Basmati areas, the grains do not have the same quality. During vegetative period high humidity (70 to 80%) and a temperature ranges of 25 to 35°C are favourable. From flowering onwards bright and clear sunny day with a temperature range of 25 to 32°C, comparatively cooler night (20 to 25°C) moderate humidity and gentle wind velocity at the time of flowering and maturity are considered necessary for proper grain and aroma development. The area under Basmati rice cultivation in India is 1 M ha and in Pakistan is 0.75 M ha. In India highest area under Basmati rice is in Uttar Pradesh (0.4 M ha) followed by Haryana (0.25 M ha), Uttranchal (0.10 M ha), Punjab (0.10 M ha), Jammu & Kashmir (0.05 M ha) and Rajasthan (0.05 M ha) documented by Sharma and Nayak (2005).

Basmati rice has been in cultivation for generations in North Western India confined mainly to Punjab, Haryana, Western U.P. and adjoining district of Rajasthan.

Introduction of high yielding varieties further contributed to the reduction in acreage during the early seventies. However, with the establishment of modern mills in the early eighties and on increase in the export demand, there has been continuous increase in the area under Basmati rice cultivation. At present, India produces about 1.2 Mt (rough rice basis) with an average of 1.5 to 1.8 t ha-1 from 0.7 to 0.8 M ha which is 1.6 to 1.9 per cent as compared to the area under non-Basmati rice. Source: Mohammad Shamim, K.K. Singh, B.Gangwar, Sunil Kumar and Vinay Prasad MandalProject Directorate for Farming Systems Research, Modipuram-25011
19
Jul

Area and Production of Aromatic Rice Crop

Worldwide production and yield of crops have been increasing since 1960 due to the adoption of modern varieties, the expansion of agricultural lands, and the use of intensification measures. Yield growth accounted for almost all of the increases in food production in developing countries. Modern varieties accounted for 21% of the growth in yields and about 17% of production growth in the early Green revolution period, and accounting for almost 50% of yield growth and 40% of production growth in the late stage for all developing countries. Land expansion accounted for about 20% of the increases in production and the rest came from intensification of input use.

Rice production has been increased tremendously from 20.6 Mt in 1950-51 to 93 Mt in 2001 -02 due to increase in area under rice from 30.8 to 44.6 M ha and productivity from 668 to 1804 kg ha-1. The Paddy production in Gujarat was 1277 thousand tones from 675 thousand hectares in 2003-2004 whereas it was 1197 thousand tones from 679 thousand hectares in 2004-2005 i.e., production was decreased by 6.26% over previous year even though area was increased by 0.59% over previous year. The Productivity of rice in Gujarat state is very poor i.e., 1,356 kg ha-1 as against 1,947 kg/ha average productivity of the nation. More than 40% rice area is concentrated in very low productivity group followed by nearly 40% area in medium to low productivity group.
 The major factor that has contributed to poverty alleviation is the reduced unit cost of production and the downward trend in real prices of food. Low food prices benefited the urban laboring class and the rural landless and marginal farmers who are net buyers of food from the market. As a result, the food entitlement of the poor improved substantially. In future, expansion of area under rice is very unlikely due to tremendous increase in population and urbanization. Therefore, increasing demand has to come from increase in productivity per unit area
19
Jul

Aromatic rice and its characteristic features

Every state in the country has its own quality/specialty rice varieties. Aromatic or scented rice have long been highly regarded in Indian society not only because of their excellent quality but also because they had been considered auspicious. The aromatic rice varieties in the states of West Bengal, Orissa, Chattisgarh, Bihar and North East region are very short, fine grained and highly scented. Each one is highly priced in the locality where they are grown. These varieties are characterised by weak stem, very long growth duration, low grain weight and poor yield. Farmers mainly grow these varieties for their own consumption and ceremonial purposes and they do not have well developed market.

There is another category of aromatic rice varieties, which is long grained with a unique combination of grain, cooking and eating quality. Quality traits of these rice varieties are best expressed when grown in northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent. India and Pakistan are the traditional producers and exporters of Basmati rice and in the world market it fetches three times high price than high quality non Basmati type rice. Due to polygenic nature of inheritance of the several quality characters, it has been difficult to increase the yield potential of Basmati rice varieties while retaining the same quality characteristics.
 The word “Basmati” has been designed from two Sanskrit roots: vas (meaning aroma) and mayup (meaning ingrained or present from the beginning).Thus the word Basmati implies “ingrained aroma”. So it is the aroma that gives Basmati its novel characteristics unmatched by any other rice grain anywhere else in the world. Many scented varieties of rice have been cultivated in the Indian sub-continent from time immemorial but Basmati distinguishes itself from all other aromatic rice due to its unique aromatic characteristics coupled with silky texture of its long grain. There is general notion that any aromati
19
Jul

Aromatic Rice: Present and Future Perspective

 Rice (Oryza sativa), one of the three most important food crops in the world, forms the staple diet of 2.7 billion people. It is grown successfully in different parts of the world from 39°S south (Australia) to 50°N latitude (China). It can grow at altitudes ranging from 10 feet below sea level to 10,000 feet above sea level.

Rice is a major food crop that is grown in dry land (or upland) conditions on mountain slopes as well as in wetland conditions in Valley bottoms and in terraced fields. It is a subsistence crop for most farmers. Rice is the longest continuously grown cereal crop in the world and according to the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) it is “one of the most important developments in history”. It is grown in all the continents except Antarctica, occupying 150 million hectare (M ha) and producing 573 million tones (Mt) paddy with an average productivity of 3.88 tones per hectare (t ha-1). Its cultivation is of immense importance to food security of Asia, where more than 90% of the global rice is produced and consumed. Rice is seen as a political good in many Asian countries due to its big impact on economy, society and political stability. Rice production is highly diversified and there are strong consumer preferences and a low degree of substitutability in both production and consumption. Almost three billion people worldwide are dependent on rice for their calorie intake, and farming and milling provides employment to many people in the world. In Asia and the Pacific alone, rice production is employing about 300 million people.  The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations had declared 1966 the Year of Rice. Due to the importance of rice, year 2004 was declared the International Year of Rice by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 2002 with the aim of once again turning the attention of the world on rice as an instrument of food security and poverty reduction. Th
24
May

Pusa RH 10

Super fine grained aromatic hybrid with 40% yield advantage over Pusa Basmati 1; 125 days duration, being 15-20 days early, it escapes infestation of major pests and diseases. It is recommended as the first aromatic fine-grained hybrid identified in the country for areas where it has been evaluated viz., Haryana, Delhi and Uttaranchal.
24
May

Pusa Sugandh 3 (IET 16313-Pusa 2504-1-31)

 A fine-grained, 125-130 days duration, scented restorer line of WA cytoplasm, 17% yield advantage over Pusa Basmati I with desirable combination of quality features comparable to Taroari Basmati and Pusa Basmati I. It has moderate resistance to blast; released for traditional basmati growing areas of Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Uttaranchal and western Uttar Pradesh. 
24
May

Pusa Sugandh 2 (IET 16310-Pusa 2504-1-26)

A fine grained, 125-130 days duration, scented restorer line of WA cytoplasm, 11% yield advantage over Pusa Basmati 1 with desirable mix of quality features comparable to Taroari Basmati and Pusa Basmati 1, has moderate resistance to blast, released for traditional basmati growing areas of Punjab, Haryana and Delhi.
24
May

Vasumati (LET 15391-RP 3135-17-12-8-8)

A long slender aromatic variety of 130 to 140 days duration, exhibits 14% yield advantage over Pusa Basmati 1, released for traditional basmati growing areas of Haryana, Punjab, Uttaranchal and western Uttar Pradesh; desirable basmati quality features and moderate resistance to leaf blast, brown spot, WBPH and resistance to gall midge 1 & 4.
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