|Production Know How
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1. These are basically upland crops grown in wetland /low land rice (relay cropping) by extending cropping season utilizing residual moisture.
2. Relay sowing of dryland crops into standing rice crop with little /no land preparation must be resorted to.
3. Rice – blackgram (rabi) is a very popular rotation in alluvial/black soils of Krishna delta in A.P. (being coastal areas, atmospheric temperatures do not fall below 18-200 C which are optimal) and also in Tamil nadu.
4. It needs rhizobia raised as rice fallow black gram inoculum because previous soil flooding ( rice season) discourages the survival of native rhizobia.
5. These crop normally do not receive fertilisation and thus mainly depend on residual effect of fertilizers applied to kharif rice.
6. Foliar spray of N & P in the form of DAP at 2% is preferred in case of any need to supplement nutrients, as soil application is not feasible due to prevailing upland situations.
7. They contribute only marginally to soil N fertility through left over root residues.
1. This cropping system is of late becoming popular in north west India due to certain inherent advantages. It is best suited for late sown situations (especially in areas where turn around period is long due to slow soil drying).
2. It can effectively smother self sown rice (in south India) by its quick growth.
3. It needs less number of irrigations and has less biotic stresses as compared to other commercial crops like groundnut.
4. Foliar spray of 0.2% sodium borate / boric acid at heading is very important for proper seed filling.
5. Sunflower being an exhaustive crop should be inserted in crop rotation with caution as not to cause over depletion of soil fertility.
6. Continuous rotation of sunflower with rice without pre rice GM is associated with yield decline in case of sunflower.
1. Chick pea is rotated with upland rice in vertisols (AP, MP and Orissa) in rainfed low land conditions in Terai.
2. Chick pea inclusion in the rice rotation is known to provide N benefit (25-30 kg ha-1) by BNF.
3. It has also an ability to access P normally not available to other crops especially shallow rooted rice in vertisols by mobilising sparingly soluble Ca- P by acidification of rhizosphere via its citric acid exudates.
4. Further, chickpea with its deep root system acquires P from deeper layers by above mechanisms and some of which will be left behind through its root residues in the upper layers also. Thus, otherwise positionally inaccessible P is introduced into nutrient cycle of cropping systems.
5. Rice crop with its shallow root system (20-30 cm) stands benefited from the increased P supply (25-30 kg P2O5 ha-1) brought about by chickpea rotation in vertisols.
1. Rice –groundnut is the third major cropping system (about 1m ha) . INM practices of rice groundnut are also similar to rice-wheat system with a few changes.
2. Groundnut grown in rice weeds fallows need to be treated with Rhizobium for efficient BNF contribution.
3. Self sown /volunteer rice poses a major problem in early stage of rabi groundnut. Hence, selective weedicides have to be used to avoid nutrient robbing by weeds.
4. N application can be nil / minimum to pulse crop. It should be applied only basally as a booster dose. P application should be given more importance especially from cheap sources like rock phosphates.
5. In P deficient soils, it is known to release formic/ fumaric acids as root exudates which have the ability to solubilise P from Al –P and Fe-P (red and laterite soils.
6. Spray 2% Diammoniam Phosphsn at flower mitiation and 2nd spray after first spary will enhance pod and seed development effectively.
7. Application of soil amendments like gypsum @ 2 t ha-1 can nullify soil degradation ( soil capping/ crusting) taken place due to puddling given to rice. This can also take care of nutrients of oilseed crops (Ca and S).
1. Thirty three per cent of rice and 42 per cent wheat production occur under this cropping system covering about 10 m ha. Decline in yields of both rice and wheat are reported.
2. Loss of soil organic matter, degradation of soil structure/sub-soil pan and emerging micronutrient deficiencies like Zn and Mn are the major reasons for decline in productivity in rice-wheat system
3. Accordingly fitting in of moong bean (green gram) in post-wheat fallows availing adequate ground water available in these tracts would help to supply N as well as soil organic matter.
4. Abundant crop residues available in this system (rice and wheat straws) should be used properly to build up soil organic matter.
5. Rice straw incorporation is not feasible as it coincides with cold season. Hence, proper spreading and burning or burning and spreading of ash is to be done.
6. To ensure quick decomposition of cereal crop residues with wider C: N ratio, they should be mixed with green manure crops in 1:1 ratio.
Different Rice based cropping systems include
1. Rice –wheat
2. Rice-Ground nut
3. Rice- Sunflower
4. Rice-Black gram