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Production Know How
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18
Jul

Land preparation, soil moisture and Seed depth in Direct Seeded Rice

 • Plow the fields during summer to control emerging weeds• Leveling the fields well facilitates uniform irrigation and better germination• Optimum depth of seed:2-3 cm. The seed should be covered by soil for proper
        germination and to avoid bird damage.• In lowlands and finer textured soils, planking may not be necessary after seeding.• Soil moisture content at seeding should be sufficient for proper germination• Surface mulch: helps retain soil moisture longer to improve emergence and reduce
        weed menace 
18
Jul

Direct Seeded Rice

Rice can be directly seeded either through dry or wet (pregerminated) seeding.

Dry seeding of rice can be done by drilling the seed into a fine seedbed at a depth of 2-3 centimeters.

Wet seeding requires leveled fields to be harrowed and then flooded (puddling). The field is left for 12-24 hours after puddling, then germinated seeds (48-72 hours) are sown using a drum seeder.

Seed can be broadcast for either dry or wet seeding, but manual weeding is more difficult. Indeed, weed management is a critical factor in direct seeding.

Timely application of herbicides (timing is dependent on the method of seeding) and one or two hand weedings provide effective control. 
25
Jun

Limitations of wet direct seeding

1. Good land preparation, levelling and water management are needed for uniform crop establishment. 2. Weeds are very serious in dry seeding and serious in wet seeding. 3. Snails (in wet seeded fields), and rats and birds can severely reduce plant stands. 4. Heavy rainfall at the time of crop establishment can result in crop establishment failure (especially in heavier clay soils), and if water sits over seed still germinating below the soil. 5. Longer occupation of main field by 5-15 days, compared to transplanted rice. 6. High water and nutrient use in dry seeding (due to high percolation especially on light soils).
25
Jun

Procedure for wet direct seeding

1. Ensure the field is well levelled, well puddled and weed free. 2. 2-5 days after the final puddling, the soil has settled to be solid enough to hold seed on or near the surface and weeds have not yet established. 3. In drained fields, small outlets can be made across the field a couple of days after puddling to further help drain the field and avoid snail damage and seed emergence problems in areas with standing water. 4. Pre-germinate the seed (soak for 24 hours in water, cover and drain for 24 hours). In this time the seedling root will emerge 2-3mm. 5. Use sufficient seed - of a variety suited for direct seeding - to achieve a plant population of 100-150 plants/m2. This will usually require around 80 kg seed/ha. Use an extra 10-20% if the seed is not pre-germinated. 6. If water in the fields is muddy following the last working, allow the field to dry for a time period of at least 24 hrs (preferably 48 hrs) before broadcasting commences.
25
Jun

Why Use Wet Direct Seeding?

1. Easier (less drudgery) and more timely crop establishment. 2. Reduced labour costs for crop establishment. 3. Possible savings in water use.
25
Jun

Wet Direct Seeding

1. In wet direct seeding, seed is normally pre-germinated prior to broadcasting onto recently drained, well-puddled seedbeds or into pre-standing water in the fields. 2. Wet direct seeding more commonly used in irrigated areas.
25
Jun

Dry Direct Seeding Limitations

1. Good land preparation, levelling and water management are needed for uniform crop establishment. Weeds are a major problem and their control is critical to get high yield.

2. Problems of rats, birds, mole crickets, ants and Nematodes can also be a problem especially in non-flooded fields.

3. Heavy rainfall at the time of crop establishment can result in crop establishment failure (especially in heavier clay soils) and if water sits over seed still germinating below the soil.

4. Longer occupation of main field by about 15 days, compared to transplanted rice. In light soils, there is high water use due to percolation losses.

25
Jun

Dry Direct Seeding in irrigated areas

1. Use less - 60-80 kg - of good seed of a variety suited for direct seeding. Fertilizer can be added as basal.
2. Irrigate after sowing (if no rain). Let the water drain before flash flooding after 2-3 days to keep seed moist and to reduce soil crusting (this is especially important in the dry season).
3. If water is drained from the fields after broadcasting, it is re-introduced 10 to 15 days after the crop is established.
25
Jun

Dry Direct Seeding in rainfed systems

1. Small outlets can be made across the field to help drain the field and avoid snail damage and seed emergence problems in areas where water may stand.

2. Use sufficient seed of a variety suited for direct seeding to achieve a plant population of 100-150 plants/m2. This will usually require around 120-150 kg seed/ha. Farmers often use more seed (e.g., up to 150-200 kg/ha) because of poor field levelling, poor seed and seed loses to birds and rats.

3. Sow the seed uniformly. For hand broadcasting, mark the field in 5 m wide strips (the typical distance over which seed can be uniformly distributed by hand).

4. Divide the seed into uniform lots to allow the person sowing to sow up the field and back (i.e., a 10 m wide strip) before getting the next seed lot. (e.g., if the field is 20 m wide, then there will be 4 passes of 5 m each and the seed should be divided into 2 equal size seed lots).

5. Broadcast the seed and lightly incorporate. Care is taken not to incorporate the seed too deeply (i.e., > 1-2 cm) into clay soils or where surface sealing is a problem.

25
Jun

Dry Direct Seeding in rainfed Rice ecosystems

1. Small outlets can be made across the field to help drain the field and avoid snail damage and seed emergence problems in areas where water may stand.

2. Use sufficient seed of a variety suited for direct seeding to achieve a plant population of 100-150 plants/m2. This will usually require around 120-150 kg seed/ha. Farmers often use more seed (e.g., up to 150-200 kg/ha) because of poor field levelling, poor seed and seed loses to birds and rats.

3. Sow the seed uniformly. For hand broadcasting, mark the field in 5 m wide strips (the typical distance over which seed can be uniformly distributed by hand).

4. Divide the seed into uniform lots to allow the person sowing to sow up the field and back (i.e., a 10 m wide strip) before getting the next seed lot. (e.g., if the field is 20 m wide, then there will be 4 passes of 5 m each and the seed should be divided into 2 equal size seed lots).

5. Broadcast the seed and lightly incorporate. Care is taken not to incorporate the seed too deeply (i.e., > 1-2 cm) into clay soils or where surface sealing is a problem.

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