|Production Know How
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Manual transplanting involves a lot of human drudgery as the operation is done in bending posture for longer periods. It is essential that the timely transplanting is important to achieve good crop yields.
Delayed monsoon forces the farmer to go for planting in a short span of time for which the nursery availability becomes a serious constraint.
Direct seeding is the often-resor' 3d practice to circumvent these problems. The practice of seed broadcasting often results in non-uniform plant stand and difficulty in taking up any intercultural operations thereby affecting the crop yield.
Line sowing of the seed would help in optimum plant stand and ease of taking up weed control which is the common problem associated with direct seeding.
Earlier commercial designs of DRR involving furrow openers and two floats are now refined with a single central wooden float with provision to sow seeds on ridges.Features of row seeder
• Arrangement of four drums mounted on hollow circular pipe with perforations to
sow pre-germinated seeds at a row spacing of 20 cm.• Two dirve wheels with lugs on either side for support and dragging by means of a
handle.• New design with central wooden float provides depth control, localized leveling
thereby reducing the necessity of precision leveling before sowing, facilitates
reduction in pulling effort and enables ridges on which seeds are sown. This
protects the seeds from overflowing soil-water suspension during sowing with
1. There are several models available in India. It essentially has a threshing drum with rasp bars.
2. The concave used covered 33 per cent of cylinder surface.
3. Apart from cylinder, it has a stripping beater of to prevent straw wrapping, three sections of prevent straw walkers to convey the straw and cleaning system.
4. Its cost is about Rs 35,000. It gives an output of about 4 q/hr.
1. For the purpose of winnowing, the farmers of North East Region mainly dependent on natural wind breeze which is by nature uncertain.
2. The winnowing operation for the crops like paddy takes many days. Due to frequent rain, sometimes the paddy grains are spoiled as they are lying in the field for winnowing purpose.
3. After the introduction of manual winnower, the farmers could finish winnowing operation quickly.
4. The average output of the machine taken by the local farmers was recorded as around 2.5-3.5 q/h.
5. Due to quickness of the operation, it is gaining much popularity among the farmers of this region.
6. More than 200 hrs of machine operation was observed in the season of 2007 and 2008 years.
1. It is the mechanical equipment used in manual threshing. It was developed in Japan and was quite popular among the farmers.
2. It uses an eccentric drive mechanism and consists of loop type threshing drum with a supporting frame.
3. Two cast iron gears quadruples the speed obtained from treadle movement for a cylinder speed of about 400 rpm for the drive.
4. Paddy threshing is done by holding the paddy stalk with grain against the teeth of the revolving cylinder.
5. The capacity of a single man operated machine is about 1.5 to 1.9 q/day. It is commercially available and with the reach of small farmers. Its cost is about Rs 2500.
1. The Threshing and Winnowing Equipments are
a. Pedal operated thresher
b. Hand Winnower
c. Threshing Drum
1. This machine cuts the crop and conveys to one side in the form of window with all the ear heads on one side.
2. The cut crop may be collected manually. It is powered by a 5 HP diesel engine with a working width of 1000 mm.
3. It harvests about 2 - 2.5 ha in a day of 8 hrs. It costs around Rs. 70,000 including engine. Initially a strip of 1.2 m width is to be cut manually at headlands to facilities the machine for turning.
4. The shattering is about 1 to 1.5 %. It can also be used for other crops like wheat. Two wheels have separate clutches for easy manoeuvrability. It consumes 0.75 litre of kerosene per hour.
1. In the improved sickles, the cutting edge is serrated instead of being plain.
The serrated edged blades can facilitate self sharpening, better quality of cut and inter changeability of the blades.
2. The handles are made light with a better grip to improve the operators comfort.
Some of the commercially available sickles are 'MAIDC', 'Vaibhav' and 'Naveen'.
3. Vaibhav sickles harvests17% more area of given time while the Naveen sickles, harvests 20% more area than conventional sickles.
4. These modern sickles are ergonomically designed, light in weight and need less frequent sharpening. The blades are made of quality steel and cost around Rs 30 to 40.
1. Harvesting is another labour intensive operation requiring about 20 per cent of the total labour required in rice cultivation.
2. If harvesting is not done on time, it tantamount to loss of produce to a considerable extent.
3. The harvesting equipments are
b) Vertical conveyor reaper.
C) Combine Harvester
1. A row seeder is modified with the following design characteristics. The machine comprises of a hollow shaft on which modular units of hopper with metering mechanisms are mounted.
2. Two drive wheels mounted on either side of the shaft drive the mechanism. Each modular unit comprises a seed chamber.
3. The drive wheel rotates a rotor carrying 12 cells. The cells scoop into the pre-germinated seeds and carry 2 or 3 seeds.
4. The seed cell will discharge into a delivery chute. The furrow opener mounted on the delivery chute further guides the seed placement.
5. The machine can accommodate 8 modular units with a trial working width of 1.6 m. The machine can be adjusted to suit the row to row spacing with the maximum bring 0.20 m x 8 rows.
6. The machine is designed for an intra row spacing of 0.15 m. The power requirement of the machine needs to be evaluated.
7. The machine can also be tailor-made to suit 4 x 0.20 m, by using few accessories like handle, drive shaft and connecting framework.
1. A manual paddy transplanter designed was found suitable for transplanting wetland paddy.
2. The transplanter requires well puddled soil with the help of power tiller or animal drawn puddler to ensure proper fixing of the seedlings and reduced missing.
3. Seedlings have to be grown in a special mat type nursery.
4. These two pre-requisites of the machine have prevented its large scale popularization among North East farmers.
5. The field capacity of this transplanter was recorded as 0.015 to 0.08 ha/h with plant to plant spacing of 20 cm.