|Production Know How
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The most common modes of transportation are:
1)Road transportation : Road transport is the most predominant by used in the movement of paddy/rice. a.Road transport is used in right from the producing fields to the ultimate consumer. The initial movement of paddy/rice is done on village roads, which are generally non tarred (Kachha), and mostly tracks wind through the fields.
b.Over the years, road transport has expanded phenomenally, due to the development of roads in rural areas, as well as by the increase of numbers and efficiency of different types of vehicles i.e. trucks and tractors etc.
2) Railways : Railway is one of the most important means of transportation of paddy/rice. Railway is cheaper than road transport and more su la transport of paddy/rice depends on distance, quantity etc. a) Railway transportation requires more handling cost, as it requires loading and unloading charges besides local transportation cost. However, losses are more in case of transport by railways.
3)Water transport :This is the oldest and cheapest mode of paddy/rice is mainly done
1.Packaging is closely related to labeling and branding. In present scenario, branding and labeling of rice has significant impact on consumer preference.
2. More care is required in packaging of rice meant for export.
3.This is because of demonstrative effect and the requirements of consumers in different countries; exporters have now started using transparent, colourful and attractive packaging.
4.For good packaging, the packages must possess following qualities: It must protect rice very well and should be long lasting and must look clean.
It must be convenient to handle and carry out from the store easily.
It must attract the consumer.
It must be easily identifiable and must resist spoiling.
Grading under Agmark
1. Grading under Agmark is carried out by the Directorate of Marketing & Inspection in accordance with the grade specifications notified by the Central Government under the provisions of Agricultural Produce (Grading and Marking) Act, 1937 and Rules made there-under.
2. Grading of rice under AGMARK is voluntary for internal domestic consumption
Grading at producers’ level
1.The scheme, “Grading at Producers’ level” was introduced in 1962-63 by Directorate of Marketing and Inspection (DMI).
2.The main objective of this scheme is to subject the produce to simple tests and assign a grade before it is sold for sale.
3.The programme is being implemented by the State Governments.
Adulterants and toxins
1. Admixtures: Sand, marble chips, stones etc
2. Chemicals: Residues on contaminated seeds like mercury, copper, tin, zinc etc. and pesticide residues.
3. Fungal: Toxins in moist grains from : fusarium Sportrichiella toxins in yellow rice from Penicillium inslandium, Penicillium citreovirede, Penicillium atricum, Rhizopus, Aspergillus etc.
4. Viral: Machupo virus: Due to rodent’s urine.
5. Natural contamination: Asbestos (present in talc, kaolin etc.).
1) Be the dried mature grains (with husk) of Oryza sativa L.;
2) Have uniform size, shape and colour;
3) Be hard, clean, wholesome and free from moulds, weevils, obnoxious smell, discolouration, admixture of deleterious substances and all other impurities except to the extent indicated in the under special characteristics;
4) Be in sound merchantable condition; and
5) Not have moisture exceeding 14 per cent.
Standards and grades for milled rice
1. Standards can be defined as a quantitative way by which we measure and compare certain quality characteristics.
2. This measured comparison of recognizable quality characteristics can described as ‘grading’.
3. To date, there are few universally accepted international standards for paddy and milled rice.
4. This is primarily due to differences in emphasis on the importance of grading paddy and milled rice quality among countries.
5. However, National standards exist and are being used as a marketing basis. As an example, the table shows national standards for milled rice in the Philippines.
6. In general, grading factors of paddy are (1) purity, (2) foreign matter, (3) defectives and (4) moisture content. For milled rice, the characteristics considered for grading are (1) head rice, brokens and brewers percentages (2) defectives, (3) foreign matter, (4) presence of paddy and (5) moisture content.
Grading is to separate milled grain according to size and quality--whole grain, broken grain, short grain, or long grain
1.Select 2 to 10 grains and ground separately in the Wig-L Bug.
2. Gel consistency is measured by the cold gel in a horizontally-held test tube, for one hour.
Measurement ranges and category are as follows:
Category Consistency (mm)
Gelatinization temperature (GT)
1. GT is measured by determining the alkali-spreading value for which the alkali digestibility test is employed.
2.Grains are soaked in 1.7% KOH and incubated in a 30oC oven for 23 hours.
3.Measurement ranges are based on the following: Gelatinization temperature is estimated by the extent of alkali spreading and clearing of milled rice soaked in 1.7% KOH at room temperature or at 39oC for 23 hours.
4. The degree of spreading is measured using a seven-point scale as follows:
1. Grain not affected
2. Grain swollen,
3. Grain swollen, collar incomplete and narrow,
4. Grain swollen, collar complete and wide,
5. Grain split or segmented, collar complete and wide,
6. Grain dispersed, merging with collar; and
7. Grain completely dispersed and intermingled.