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Production Know How
  • RKMP serves the generic information related to rice cultivation in more than 2500 Reusable Learning Objects (RLOs).In other words this information is not context specific and may be useful to extension workers cutting across the states (For example - principles of land levelling).
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08
Jul

Creating a ‘Hard Pan’

  1. In some soil types it is desirable to develop a ‘hard pan’ or impermeable layer to stop deep percolation of water below the root zone of the crop.

2. This hard layer is best achieved by using an implement that actually smears the soil during its normal mode of action.

3. The rotovator is the best implement for this operation.

4. High levels of wheelslip from tractors fitted with cage wheels will also give a similar effect.

5. Similarly disc ploughs, offset or tandem discs working in very wet soils can attain a similar effect.

08
Jul

Advantages of Puddling

1. Reduces the percolation loss.

2. Incorporation of green manure is possible.

3. The soil is made soft for easy transplanting.

4. Helps in better control of weeds.

5. Increases the nutrient availability.

08
Jul

Steps involved in puddling

1. Plough the land under dry conditions. 2. Divide the land into small plots. 3. Form bunds on all the four sides. 4. Impound water in these plots for 2-3 days. 5. Take-up ploughing in standing water. 6. Pass Trampler. 7. Level the land using leveler.
08
Jul

Puddling

1. Puddling is the most important operation operation for preparation of soil bed for transplanting the rice seedlings. 2. Puddling is associated with churning of the soil to change its physical properties like bulk density, percolation rate, porosity and penetration. 3. This process helps to check the weed growth, conserve the water and nutrients and ultimately to improve the crop yield. 4. Puddling is done in standing water of 50-100mm depth in the field that has already been ploughed once in dry conditions.
08
Jul

Up and back or headland tillage Pattern

  1. In the Up and back or headland tillage Pattern the field is ploughed in runs parallel to each other. 2. It starts at one boundary of the field and ends at the opposite with turns being made on the headlands. 3. This system can only be used for tined implements, rotovators, harrows and reversible ploughs. 4. It is usually the most field efficient system and if equipment is correctly set up and operated should not leave furrows in the field.

08
Jul

Circuitous tillage Pattern

  1. In a circuitous pattern the machine begins working along a boundary. It continues along the other boundaries of the land, returning to its starting point. 2. This pattern works from the outside to the center of the field and is the most commonly used system for ploughing in Asia. 3. It is commonly used with moldboards, discs and offset discs. 4. This is the system that most animals are accustomed to working and it also requires less spatial judgment by the operator than working in a land type system. 5. The major disadvantage of this system is that the field ends up with a large cut out furrow in the center. 6. Over time the field ends up having an oblong saucer shaped depression in the center that is hard to drain and makes it difficult to get an even depth of cultivation, good weed and water control.

08
Jul

Tillage Patterns

1. One of the most important objectives of a tillage pattern is to minimize the number of turns and maximize the length of the tillage runs. 2. An optimal tillage pattern reduces the time spent in non-productive work. 3. There are three patterns that can be used when tilling a field. • Circuitous tillage Pattern • Up and back or headland tillage Pattern • Land system tillage Patterns
07
Jul

Properties of good tilth

1. There should be continuous system of wide pores from the soil surface down to the water table useful To enhance rapid movement of water and to allow rapid diffusion of CO2 from the subsoil to the atmosphere.

2. The pores should be sufficiently stable.

3. High water holding capacity.

4. The soil should be crumbly. The crumbs should be large enough not to be blown away but small enough to allow good germination of the seed.

07
Jul

Tilth

Tilth is defined as the physical condition of the soil in its relation to plant growth. It is the resultant of tillage. Soil tilth is not static but changes rapidly and markedly. One of the main objectives of tillage is to get good tilth. Measurement of tilth can be made by 1. Aggregate analysis 2. Determination of porosity 3. Determination of density 4. Water holding capacity 5. Saturated hydraulic conductivity 6. Force of penetration
07
Jul

Special Purpose Tillage

Special purpose tillage Refers to tillage operations intended to serve special purposes like 1. Subsoiling – To break hard pan beneath the plough layer. 2. Leveling – To level. 3. Blind tillage – To thin out & remove weeds. 4. Clean tillage – Top remove all vegetation. 5. Contour tillage – To reduce erosion. 6. Wet tillage – To create impervious layer.
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