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Package of Practices
  • A compendium of state specific and location specific recommended package of practices are provided under this head. You may be interested to see that, thanks to our IP based customisation, that only your state (the state from where you are accessing RKMP) specific information is available.
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Direct seeded rice (DSR):

Under this practices rice can be directly seeded either through dry or wet (pre germinated) seeding by drilling the seed into a fine seedbed at a depth of 2–3 cm. Wet seeding requires levelled fields to be harrowed and then flooded. The field is left for 12–24 hours after puddling, and then germinated seeds (48–72 hours) are sown by drum seeder. ndeed, weed management is a critical factor in direct seeding. Timely application of herbicides and one or two hand weeding provide effective control.

A field survey of Haryana and Uttar Pradesh study revealed that in 67% cases farmers obtained either equal or higher yields as compared with the conventional puddled transplanted rice. The marginal yield penalties in the balance 33% cases were mainly due to inexperience of the farmers (seeding in inappropriate soil moisture, deeper seed placement, delayed and improper use of herbicide molecules). The study also stated that comparative to puddled transplanted rice, the savings in DSR was in the range of US$ 70-102 ha-1. The tillage induced savings were mainly through reduced cost in land preparation (77%), irrigation water (15%) and labour (8%).Fig.1

 Input cost in Puddled Transplanting                                                Saving in DSR

General,EIS,Package of Practices


New techniques for sustainable production of rice

  • Resource Conserving Technologies
  • Conservation agriculture is a broad term and it includes mainly three conserving techniques that conserve resources
  • Soil cover, particularly through retention of crop residues on the soil surface
  • Sensible, profitable crop rotation; and
  • A minimum level of soil disturbance

A practice that conserves resources and ensures their optimal utilization and enhances resource or input use-efficiency is called resource conserving techniques (RCTs). Mainly these techniques includes zero or minimum tillage (save fuel and time), direct seeding, permanent or semi permanent residue cover, new varieties that use nitrogen more efficiently, laser assisted land levelling, system of rice intensification (SRI), direct seeded rice (DSR), precision farming, use of leaf colour chart (LCC) and integrated crop management (ICM).


Major challenges for sustaining rice productivity

  • Soil degradation
  • Decline water table
  • Inadequate plant population
  • Drop in soil organic matter
  • Nitrate pollution in ground water
  • Emergence of multiple nutrient deficiencies
  • Appearance of new weed biotypes and resistance to applied herbicides
  • Cultivation of rice on light-textured soil
  • Inadequate and imbalanced use of fertilizer
  • Weather aberration

Strategies and modern techniques to enhance rice production in NER

Out of the present deficiency of 1.6 million tones of food grains in the region, 1.0 million tonne deficiency is in rice alone. Main strategy to increase rice production should be through:

  • Developing altitude specific varieties and packages in a participatory mode involving farmers in selection process of such varieties to achieve an average production of 2.2 tfha from the present level of l.8 t/ha from 3.5 million ha of rice area i.e. a gain of 1.4 million tones.
  • Introducing double cropping in at least 25 - 30% of valley land areas of l.5 million ha. i.e. a gain of l.12 million tones.
  • Promoting irrigation facilities by tapping both surface and ground water resources. Present irrigation potential is only 0.88 mhm which needs to be increased to at least 1.6 mhm by tapping the water resources of 42.5 mhm in the region.
  • Breeder seed production for the developed varieties by the concerned institute/ universities, easy access to such seeds need to be ensured. Encouragement and training to youth groups and SHGs for seed production and delivery.
  • In addition to the above, rice varieties for the shifting cultivation areas should be developed to achieve an yield of 1.2 t/ha from the present level of 0.7 t/ha i.e. a gain of 0.8 million tones of rice particularly of glutinous type.
  • Protection and characterization of existing and new germplasm and appending the information to already available database for sharing the information at regional and national level as well as for future use. This is needed to develop a statewise bioresource inventory by the year 2015 and categorise risk level of various germplasm.
  • Molecular characterization of important germplasm for protection of IPR issues and to find out gene flow pattern in highly endangered species of agricultural importance.
  • Establishment of a communi

Socio-economic and cultural constraints in Rice production

  • Poor economic condition of the shifting cultivators in hills and small and marginal farmers of the plains
  • Lack of skill, work force, attention and management
  • Low level of understanding of the improved farming technology

Environmental constraints in Rice production

  • Noncongenial rugged terrain of the mountain ecosystem for development of settled cultivation
  • Regular occurrence of flood in rainy season in Assam
  • Occasional drought occurrence in hills during winter season
  • Smaller and rainfed dry terraces in hills
  • Micro-agroclimatic conditions of the flat valley lands with higher soil moisture

Implementation constraints in Rice production

  • Lack of integration and coordination between different line departments of different states in the promotion of integrated development strategies
  • Inadequate extension and training support services with little client oriented or participatory extension activities
  • Top-down approach of agricultural programmes without considering the needs of the farmers
  • Lack of on-farm, multidisciplinary and development oriented programmes
  • Lack of integration of research, extension and education in agricultural developmental    programmes
  •  Lack of adequate service facilities such as credit, input supply and marketing of produce
  • Dependent attitude of farmers on government sponsored subsidized schemes
  • Transport and communication bottleneck in remote areas


Technical constraints in Rice production

  • High level of diversity in the upland farming systems which do not allow the uniform package of practices for agricultural  development.
  • Limited opportunities for expanding arable farming to maintain the fragile hill ecosystem
  • Difficulty in promoting mechanized agriculture on sloping land
  • Limited availability or access to improved varieties of seeds planting material 
  • High dependency of hill farmers on rice cultivation as staple food
  • Increasing population density in the upland areas resulting  in more pressure on natural resources necessitating a shorter fallow cycles of jhumming, encroachment on forest land extending agriculture on steep sloping lands


Constraints in rice production

1. Technical constraints

2.Environmental constraints

3. Socio-economic and cultural constraints

4.  Implementation constraints
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