|Package of Practices
- A compendium of state specific and location specific recommended package of practices are provided under this head. You may be interested to see that, thanks to our IP based customisation, that only your state (the state from where you are accessing RKMP) specific information is available.
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- It involves slashing of the vegetation or Stover,
- leaving it on the ground to dry. Sowing is then done without disturbing the soil, except for the planting holes that may be made by using a digging stick or hoe.
- High level of diversity in the upland farming systems which do not allow the uniform package of practices for agricultural development.
- Limited opportunities for expanding arable farming to maintain the fragile hill ecosystem
- Difficulty in promoting mechanized agriculture on sloping land
- Limited availability or access to improved varieties of seeds planting material
- High dependency of hill farmers on rice cultivation as staple food
- Increasing population density in the upland areas resulting in more pressure on natural resources necessitating a shorter fallow cycles of jhumming, encroachment on forest land extending agriculture on steep sloping lands
- It is the simplest system for zero tillage or conservation tillage which is generally practiced in paddy fields.
- The seeds are broadcasted in the saturated soil surface without any tillage operation.
- This is the only system for low lying poorly drained heavy rice soils that don't allow timely tillage operation for sowing mustard and is widely practiced in Serchip and Champai districts.
- This practice cuts the cost of production and does not require any implements.
- This method is popular among small, subsistent and below subsistent-level farmers.
- However, sowing on the open soil surface makes it possible for seed to be damaged / eaten by birds.
- To protect the seed from bird damage, farmers essentially prepare a thin layer of cow dung on seed surface after seeding
1. Technical constraints
3. Socio-economic and cultural constraints
4. Implementation constraints
- Agronomic techniques may be biological or cultural.
- Farmers here involve so many measures such as they adjust sowing date in such a manner that when the maximum amount of rainfall occurs, there is enough of ground cover. This practice is often done in Jhums as they finish sowing of crops by April or even they do dry sowing of crops.
- Mostly farmers in jhum take number of crops in such a fashion that they get a denser plant population in their fields.
- The loss of moisture in soil due to dense planting in Jhum is taken care by different dates of maturity of the crops.
- Mixed cropping in Jhum has been the most traditional practice of the Mizo farmers.
- In mixed cropping, two or more crops are grown in the same field in the same season.
- In most cases cereals and leguminous crops are mixed.
- Good crop rotations such as maize followed by legumes facilitate the conservation and addition of humus, restoration of soil structure and fertility and reduction of pests and diseases.
- The fast growing legumes provide soil cover early in season, shielding the impact of raindrops.
- They fix nitrogen too, and thus help to maintain soil fertility. Inter cropping of Maize with cowpea, beans, etc is very common in Jhum of Mizoram.
- In slopping hillsides, maize Stover is sometimes used to make trash lines, which help in slowing down the flow of runoff, and traps eroded soils.
- The technique is used both for erosion control and fertility improvement.
The rice grown in the region thus can be classified into six classes primarily.These are Ahu or autumn rice, Sailor Kharif rice also called winter rice, Boro or spring/summer rice, Asra or shallow water rice, Bao or deep water floating rice or hill rice. The hill rice can also be furthersubdivided into mid altitude rice and high altitude rice. The various classes of rice along with the season of cultivation are indicated in Table 8.
The agricultural practice in the region are broadly of two distinct type viz., settled farming practiced in the plains, valley/foot hills, terraced slopes and shifting cultivation in the hill slopes. Depending upon the system of farming, food habits and climatic conditions, several crops are grown in the region. Some of the frequently practiced cropping systems of shifting cultivation areas are collated in Table 7.
Table 7. Dominant rice based cropping system of NEH Region
Shifting cultivation is a land-use practice that reflects a rotation of cropping and fallow periods which is commonly practiced in many upland farming systems in Northeastern hill region. Fallow periods have a number of benefits.
The most important ones include soil fertility restoration, suppression of weeds, and protection of the soil against erosion. Fallows may also supply a source of cash income for the farmers through the existence or planting of specific economic valuable species.
In addition, fallows may provide products that serve as agricultural inputs such as fodder and fencing materials for farms with a livestock component.
Historically, in most traditional shifting cultivation systems, fallow vegetation was simply left to establish naturally after abandonment of a cropped field. In the recent decades, many households have shifted toward more active management of fallows to better serve the changing needs and priorities of the farming households.
- Farmers are aware that top soil is their supporting layer and it is upon the productiveness of this layer that their survival and prosperity depends.
- The traditional wisdom of various soil conservation measures like bunds made of stones or boulder or earthen dams are mostly local soil and water conservation practices and are location specific and accordingly vary in purpose.
- They conserve soil in situ by constructing stone and earthen bunds. Certain structures like ridging or pitting; water harvesting structures such as tied ridges dispose off excess water from crop lands.
- These are mainly traditional soil conservation tillage systems evolved by farmers over the course of time to suit certain environmental conditions.
- These are relatively cheap to implement and easily be replicated.
The SSNM approach can be described in three basic steps.
Step 1: Establish an attainable yield target
Rice yields are location and season specific — depending upon climate, rice cultivar, and crop management. The yield target for a given location and season is the estimated grain yield attainable with farmers’ crop management when N, P, and K constraints are overcome.The amount of nutrients taken up by a rice crop is directly related to yield. The yield target therefore indicates the total amount of nutrients that must be taken up by the crop.
Step 2: Effectively use existing nutrients
The SSNM approach promotes the optimal use of existing (indigenous) nutrients coming from the soil, organic amendments, crop residue, manure, and irrigation water. The uptake of a nutrient from indigenous sources can be estimated from the nutrient-limited yield, which is the grain yield for a crop not fertilized with the nutrient of interest but fertilized with other nutrients to ensure they do not limit yield.
Step 3: Apply fertilizer to fill the deficit between crop needs and indigenous supply
Fertilizer N, P, and K are applied to supplement the nutrients from indigenous sources and achieve the yield target. The quantity of required fertilizer is determined by the deficit between the crop’s total needs for nutrients — as determined by the yield target — and the supply of these nutrients from indigenous sources — as determined by the nutrient-limited yield.
EIS,Package of Practices,Nutrient Management
From 2001 to 2004, the Reaching Toward Optimal Productivity (RTOP) workgroup of the Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (IRRC) collaborated with national agriculture research and extension systems in eight Asian countries to systematically transform the initial SSNM concept into an inclusive, simplified framework for the dynamic plant-need-based management of N, P, and K. The SSNM approach now enables:
- Dynamic adjustments in fertilizer N, P, and K management to accommodate field- and season-specific conditions.
- Effective use of indigenous nutrients.
- Efficient fertilizer N management through the use of the leaf color chart
- (LCC), which helps ensure that N is applied at the time and in the amount needed by the rice crop.
- Use of the nutrient omission plot technique to determine the requirements for P and K fertilizers.
- Use of micronutrients based on local recommendations.
The total amount of fertilizer required can be approximated from the anticipated crop response to fertilizer application which is a difference between attainable target yield and N limited yield. The estimated total fertilizer requirement by the crop is then apportioned among multiple times of application during the growing season to ensure that the supply of nutrient management is a method for the rapid assessment of leaf nutrient content which is closely related photosynthetic rate and biomass production and is a sensitive indicator of leaf nutrient changes in crop nutrient demand (Peng et al.,1996).