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Package of Practices
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03
Aug

Rice Stem borer

1. The stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulus) is a major pest of rice and distributed throughout the region. The female moth has bright yellowish brown fore wings with a black spot on each and an anal tuft of yellowish hairs. 2. The males do not have the black spot on the fore wings. Eggs are laid near the tip of the leaves covered with buff coloured hairs. Each egg mass contain 20-25 eggs and a female lays 3-4 such egg masses. 3. Incubation period ranges from 6-8 days and the newly emerged larvae enter the leaf sheath. From there they bore into the plant near the nodal region. The larvae reach the full growth in 30-40 days and the final instar larva measures 2 cm long. 4. Pupa is dark brown and the pupal period varies from 6-10 days. 5. The larva feeds inside the stem causing death of the central shoot or dead heart in young plants and 'white ear' in panicle stage. 6. The percent damage ranges from 12-15%. The female moths are highly attracted to light at night. Entomopathogenic nematodes (mermithids), entomogenous fungi (Beauveria velata, B. bassiana) and hymenopterian parasitoids (Tetrasticus sp.) are the common natural enemies, which occur in rice ecosystem.
03
Aug

Important Pests of assam

The economically important insects causing considerable damage to rice crop in this region are 1. Stem borer 2. Leafroller 3. Caseworm 4. Armyworm 5. Thrips 6. GalI midge 7. Rice hispa 8. Rice ear cutting caterpillar 9. Rice green semilooper 10. Gundhibug 11. Root aphids 12. Horned caterpillar 13. Skipper 14. Slug caterpillar
02
Aug

Leaf Folder

 

1. The larvae fold the leaves, eat out the green tissue and produce white streaks. 2. The damage is highest during August-October. Spray the crop when the leaf damage reaches 10 per cent (ETL) with 350 ml of Hostathion 40 EC (triazophos) or 1 litre of Coroban/ Durmet/ Force 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) or 560 ml of Monocil 36 SL (monocrotophos) in 100 litres of water per acre.
02
Aug

Grasshoppers

 

1. Grasshoppers can damage rice at all stages of crop growth.

2. Both nymphs and adults feed on leaves by cutting the edges of leaves at all the growth stages of the rice crop.

3. Damage is found more on the margins of the field.

4. They sometimes cut the plants similar to cut worms.

5. When the grasshoppers are in greater numbers they can even feed on the midribs and total leaves and cause extensive defoliation.

02
Aug

Grasshoppers

 

1. Grasshoppers can damage rice at all stages of crop growth. 2. Both nymphs and adults feed on leaves by cutting the edges of leaves at all the growth stages of the rice crop. 3. Damage is found more on the margins of the field. 4. They sometimes cut the plants similar to cut worms. 5. When the grasshoppers are in greater numbers they can even feed on the midribs and total leaves and cause extensive defoliation.
02
Aug

Rice-ear-cutting-caterpillar

1. The larvae of this insect are gregarious in habit and are commonly known as ‘armyworm’. The young larvae feed on leaves, leaving only the mid-ribs and stems.

2. The old larvae cut off the panicles mostly at the base and hence the name “rice ear cutting caterpillar”. This stage of the insect causes serious loss to the paddy crop.

3. The larvae are shy of sunlight and generally feed at night. The damage to paddy crop is caused mostly during September to November.

4. The insect can be controlled by spraying the crop with 400 ml of Ekalux/Quinguard 25 EC (quinalphos) in 100 litres of water per acre.

5. As the pest is nocturnal in behavior, the spray should be done in evening hours for getting better results.

02
Aug

Rice Root Weevil

1. This weevil is a localized pest in the rice area around Rajpura. However, this pest has also been observed in some other areas in the State.

2. Its white, legless grubs feed on roots in the soil from July to September. The attacked plants turn yellow, stunted and produce only a few tillers.

3. Apply one of the following granular insecticides in the standing water:- 3 kg of Thimet/Foratox 10G (phorate) per acre.

02
Aug

Pest out breaks in Manipur and Meghalaya

1. Outbreak of rice ear-cutting caterpillar was recorded in Assam and Manipur (Pathak et aI., 2001), Arunachal, Meghalaya and Tripura during 1982 (Barwal, 1983). 2. During 1977, outbreak of black hairy caterpillar was recorded in Meghalaya (Sachan and Gangwar, 1979). Rice hispa outbreak was recorded in Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh in 1987 (Pathak, 1987). 3. During 1986 - 1990, two species of shield bug (Eusarocoris gultieger Jhunl. and Nezara viridula L.) were found to infest rice at milky soft dough and hard dough stages in Manipur (pathak et aI., 2001). 4. Among the five species of rice stem borers, sesamia inference Walk. and Chilo polychrysus Walk occurred in the valleys in the low proportions. Stem borers though regular pests in the region are recorded as occasional pests in Meghalaya. 5. Among plant hoppers, white backed plant hopper was a major problem in the early summer crop of rice in Manipur (Barwal and Rao, 1986). 6. Meinodas and Shaikh (1989) reported different species of grasshoppers their host plants and period of activity in Manipur. 7. A number of parasites and predators were recorded on rice-insect pests in Manipur (Barwal et ai, 1994) and in Meghalaya (Azad Thakur and Barwal, 1987). Platygaster oryzae Cu. is the major larval parasitoid of rice gall midge and play significant role in its control.
02
Aug

Rice Hispa

 

1. Rice hispa a serious pest in some areas of the Gurdaspur and Amritsar districts and is also found in the other rice growing areas of the state.

2. The grubs of this pest tunnel in to the leaves, whereas the adults are exposed feeders. The grubs cause damage by producing bold, white streaks on the leaves.

3. If the attack starts in the nursery, clip off and destroy the leaf tips of the affected seedlings before transplanting. 4. On the transplanted crop, spray 120 ml Methyl Parathion 50 EC (methyl parathion)/560 ml Monocil 36 SL (monocrotophos)/800 ml Ekalux 25 EC (quinalphos)/one litre Dursban 20 EC (chlorpyriphos) in 100 litres of water per acre with a manually operated sprayer. Repeat the spraying if the attack persists.

02
Aug

Rice Slug caterpillar

1. Slug caterpillar (Parasa lepida) is a sporadic pest on rice. The larvae feed on the leaves leaving only the midrib. 2. It is recorded for the first time from NE region infesting rice crop during rainy season (Shylesha et al., 2006). 3. The other insect pests of minor economic importance include flea beetles (Chaetocnema basalis and Monolepta signata), stemfly, mole and field crickets, black bug, stink bug, blue beetles and black aphids.
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