|Package of Practices
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1. Both nymphs and adults of thrips (Thrips oryzae) feed on the plant sap from tender leaves.
2. The leaf tips of the affected plants fade and roll up and the thrips remain within the folds.
3. This is a serious pest in uplands of Sikkim andjhum lands ofTripura, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh.
1. Army worm (Spodoptera mauritia) is a sporadic pest on rice and severely occurs in Umraiang valley of Jowai district in Meghalaya, valley land of Manipur and Tripura.
2. Caterpillars feed on leaves and in severe infestation entire seedbeds and fields are destroyed and the fields appear as if it has been grazed by animals/cattle.
3. The larvae feed voraciously in the night and hide in the cracks and crevices of the soil during daytime.
1. Case worm (Nymphula depunctalis) is one of the serious pests in many areas of the NE region.
2. Adults of case worm are 6 mm long with wingspan of 15 mm. Slender green coloured caterpillars cut leaf blades into length of about 1.25 cm out of which they make tubular cases with which they feed and float while moving plant to plant. During heavy damage, leaves are skeletonised and appear whitish in colour.
1. Leafroller or leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalisi is a common pest on upland and lowland rice.
2. The larva rolls the leaf blade by fastening the edges and feed within by scraping mesophyll or the green matter.
3. Feeding reduces productive leaf area that affects plant growth. High infestation often gives a sickly appearance to the field with white patches.
4. If the infestation continues up to the boot leaf stage then it results in heavy yield losses. The moths are brownish orange with two and one distinct dark wavy lines on the brownish fore and hind wings.
5. Eggs are laid singly on the undersurface of the leaves.
6. The total life cycle varies from 25-40 days. The availability of alternate grass hosts during the off-season helps the pest to thrive well in the region.
1. The stem borer (Scirpophaga incertulus) is a major pest of rice and distributed throughout the region. The female moth has bright yellowish brown fore wings with a black spot on each and an anal tuft of yellowish hairs.
2. The males do not have the black spot on the fore wings. Eggs are laid near the tip of the leaves covered with buff coloured hairs. Each egg mass contain 20-25 eggs and a female lays 3-4 such egg masses.
3. Incubation period ranges from 6-8 days and the newly emerged larvae enter the leaf sheath. From there they bore into the plant near the nodal region. The larvae reach the full growth in 30-40 days and the final instar larva measures 2 cm long.
4. Pupa is dark brown and the pupal period varies from 6-10 days.
5. The larva feeds inside the stem causing death of the central shoot or dead heart in young plants and 'white ear' in panicle stage.
6. The percent damage ranges from 12-15%. The female moths are highly attracted to light at night. Entomopathogenic nematodes (mermithids), entomogenous fungi (Beauveria velata, B. bassiana) and hymenopterian parasitoids (Tetrasticus sp.) are the common natural enemies, which occur in rice ecosystem.
The economically important insects causing considerable damage to rice crop in this region are
1. Stem borer
6. GalI midge
7. Rice hispa
8. Rice ear cutting caterpillar
9. Rice green semilooper
11. Root aphids
12. Horned caterpillar
14. Slug caterpillar
Important insect pests of punjab state are
1. Rice stemborer .
2. Leaf Folder.
3. Plant hoppers.
5. Rice Hispa.
6. Rice root weevil.
Important insect pests of punjab state are
1. Rice stemborer
2. Leaf Folder
3. Plant hoppers
5. Rice Hispa
6. Rice root weevil
Adults scrap and feed on the chlorophyll of new leaves. Young seedlings are more affected and start drying from tips. Typical damage can be seen as white blotches on leaves.
Management of Flea beetles
Spray monocrotophos 0.05% at the time of incidence.
Dusting the crop with Carbaryl (Sevin 5%) or Malathion 5% dust or chlorpyriphos 2% dust @ 20 kg/ha in the morning hours with duster or spraying the crop with 0.05 % monocrotophos or 0.07% endosulfan or 0.05% quinalphos (Ekalux) to reduce the population.
(B) Lowland: Lowland rice is infested in nursery as well as after transplanting.
1.Nursery: Many insects infests rice in nursery, viz., root aphid, flea beetles, stem fly, stem borers, WBPH, green leaf hoppers, grass hoppers, filed crickets & hairy caterpillars and cause severe damage.
Management: Soil incorporation with Carbofuran 3G @ 3.3 gms/m2 before sowing followed by one spraying with monocrotophos 0.05 % at 20 days after sowing reduces the damage.