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Dhankheti FS(Farming System) of Sikkim

With the improvement of living standard of the people of Sikkim, food habits were changed and they could no longer relish the upland rice- 'Ghaiya' and started WRC. The bench terraces are made on hill slopes up to 80% or even more. The bench terraces are watered through perennial seasonal springs tapped from higher elevation. The water from spring is collected into very small rivulet commonly known as 'kholsa' and when this kholsa is sufficiently big is known as 'khola '. The water from kholsa and khola are taken in channels to irrigate rice-transplanted terraces under the gravity from higher elevation. In short distance water flows in one direction and in long distance from both the directions. There is complete harmony and cooperation among users of water to maintain the drainage channels.

On the irrigated terraces rice seedlings, raised in nurseries, are transplanted and fields remain almost submerged throughout the growing season and drain out through a single outlet of the field. Natural courses of water are frequently not disturbed to drain out the excess water. Surface flow of water from one terrace to another is managed in such a way that suspended soil particles remain in the adjoining areas only. Water from terraces and diversion ditches is safely drained to the vegetative slopes and save damages to roads, fields and plantation crops.

The channels remain covered with the stone plates passing through paths. Terrace wall is the main factor determining terrace stability or degradation. Terrace wall failures and considerable erosion from the terrace slopes occur during high magnitude of rainstorms in monsoon (June - September). Swelling and bulge development are the characteristics of retaining walls prior to failure. Different cropping systems like  Rice – wheat,  Rice – mustard, Rice – potato, Rice – fallow, Maize - rice – mustard, Maize - rice - fallow. In Sikkim, farmers intercrop rice with tr

Rice and rice based farming systems of North Eastern region

The rice farming situations in the North Eastern Hills are as follows:

1. Direct seeded, rain fed in upland (on steep slopes),

2. Direct seeded rain fed on level bench terraces,

3. Transplanted on wet terraces; and

4. Transplanted in valley lands.

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