Best Viewed in Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome
Package of Practices
  • A compendium of state specific and location specific recommended package of practices are provided under this head. You may be interested to see that, thanks to our IP based customisation, that only your state (the state from where you are accessing RKMP) specific information is available.
  • You are on travel? Please select the state to which you belong. You have access to your state specific content as well.
  • Look for the related information heads on right side box. Click on any of them to get the access to the appropriate information.


Wet nursery

Wet nursery

Seed rate: 40 kg/ha for coarse variety, 35 kg/ha for medium fine variety, 30kg for fine variety and 15-20 kg/ha for hybrids.

Seed treatment: Dry seed treatment: Seeds are treated with fungicide like Bavistin or Thiram @ 2 g/kg of seeds, 24 hours before sowing and the seeds are treated with Azospirillum at 600g per ha of seeds.

Wet seed treatment: Treat seeds in Carbendazim or Pyroquilon or Tricyclozole solution at 2 g/lit of water for 1 kg of seed. Soak the seeds in the solution for 2 hrs. Drain the solution, sprout the seeds and sow in the nursery bed. It gives protection to the seedlings up to 40 days from seedling disease such as blast.

Nursery area: Total seedbed area is normally calculated as 10 -12% of the main field to be transplanted.

Nursery bed preparation: The seed beds should be of one meter width and of convenient length and separated by channels 30 cm width.

Sowing: Sparse sowing of seeds (20–25 g/m2) can contribute to obtain healthy seedlings with 3–4 tillers at the time of transplanting.

Water management: First drain the water 18-24 hrs after sowing and allow enough water to saturate the soil from 3-5th day. From 5th day onwards, increase the quantity of water to a depth of 1.5 cm depending on the height of seedling, afterwards maintain 2.5 cm depth of water.

Fertilizer management: For every 100 m2 area of the seedbed, about 0.5–1.0 kg of nitrogen, 0.5 kg of phosphorous and 0.5 kg of potash fertilizers should be applied. In addition to chemical fertilizers, FYM might be applied at 250 kg/100 m2 before seed bed preparation.

Weed management: Weed management in nursery may rely on hand weeding or on application of butachlor + safener (1.5 kga.i./ha), 3–4 days after nursery sowing.

Pest management: In 10 - 12 days nurse


Dry nursery

Dry nursery

Seed rate:40 kg/ha for coarse variety, 35 kg/ha for medium fine variety, 30kg for fine variety and 15-20 kg/ha for hybrids.

Seed treatment: Seeds are treated with fungicide like Bavistin or Thiram or Beam (Trycyclozole) @ 2 g/kg of seeds, 24 hours before sowing and the seeds are treated with Azospirillum at 600g per ha of seeds.

Nursery bed preparation: Raised beds 120 cm wide, 15 cm high and any convenient length should be prepared with channel half a metre wide all round them to facilitate drainage.

Sowing: The treated seeds may be sown evenly in the bed. Water management: Dry nursery should be irrigated once in 2 or 3 days depending on the nature of the soil.

Fertilizer management: For the nursery of 10 m length and 1.5 m width 30 kg of manure (FYM or compost) should be applied. If the seedling showing the symptoms of nitrogen deficiency, apply 0.2 kg of N for 10 X 15 sq m seed bed.

Weed management: First weeding should be done at 15-20 DAS.

Pest management: In 10 - 12 days nursery plant, apply Carbofuran 3G @ 250 gm, or Forate 10G @100 gm per 100 m2 nursery area. It also controls nematodes effectively.

Age of transplanting:

  • Short duration varieties : 20-25 days
  • Medium duration varieties : 25-30 days
  • Long duration varieties : 35-40 days

Nursery Management


The main importance of nursery management is to secure a uniform plant population of rice plant that can produce more vigorous plant and high yields

Types of Rice Nursery:

There are mainly three different type of rice nursery

I. Dry nursery

II. Wet nursery


Land system pattern

Land system pattern:

  • This system requires ploughing to begin in the center of the field and works out to the edges.
  • It requires some measurement of the field to establish the center point and if done correctly leaves a level field with drainage channels on the edges.
  • This system can be used with all types of ploughs.
  • In very large fields, a number of lands may be ploughed

Up and back or headland pattern

Up and back or headland pattern

  • The field is ploughed in runs parallel to each other.
  • It starts at one boundary of the field and ends at the opposite with turns being made on the headlands.
  • This system can only be used for tined implements, rotovators, harrows and reversible ploughs.
  • It is usually the most field efficient system and if equipment is correctly set up and operated should not leave furrows in the field

Circuitous pattern

Circuitous pattern :

  • In a circuitous pattern the machine begins working along a boundary.
  • It continues along the other boundaries of the land, returning to its starting point.
  • This pattern works from the outside to the center of the field and is the most commonly used system for ploughing.
  • It is commonly used with moldboards, discs and offset discs.
  • This is the system that most animals are accustomed to working and it also requires less spatial judgment by the operator than working in a land type system.
  • The major disadvantage of this system is that the field ends up with a large cut out furrow in the center.
  • Over time the field ends up having an oblong saucer shaped depression in the center that is hard to drain and makes it difficult to get an even depth of cultivation, good weed and water control.
  • A solution to this problem is ploughing out from the middle or working the field in lands

Types of Tillage

Types of Tillage: Tillage is divided into two classes:

  • Primary tillage,
  • Secondary tillage

I)Primary Tillage:

It constitutes the initial major soil working operation. It is normally designed to reduce soil strength, cover plant materials and rearrange aggregates. The operations performed to open up any cultivable land with a view to prepare a seed bed for growing crops is known as primary tillage.

Primary tillage Implements: It may be tractor drawn or animal drawn implements.

a). Animal drawn implements: It mostly include indigenous plough and mould-board plough.

b). Tractor drawn implements: It includes mould-board plough, disc plough, subsoil plough, chisel plough and other similar implements.

II). Secondary Tillage: Tillage operations following primary tillage which are performed to create proper soil tilth for seeding and planting are secondary tillage. These are lighter and finer operations, performed on the soil after primary tillage operations. Secondary tillage consists of conditioning the soil to meet the different tillage objectives of the farm.

Secondary tillage Implements: The implements used for secondary tillage operations are called secondary tillage implements. They include different types of

a). harrow,

b). cultivators,

c). Inter-cultivating harrow

d). levellers,

e). clod crushers and similar implements.


Tillage Patterns

Tillage Patterns

1. An optimal tillage pattern reduces the time spent in non-productive work.

2. One of the most important objectives of a tillage pattern is to minimize the number of turns and maximize the length of the tillage runs.

3. There are several patterns that can be used when tilling a field. These are

  • Circuitous pattern
  • Up and back or headland pattern
  • Land system pattern



It is a mechanical manipulation of soil to provide favorable condition for crop production. Soil tillage consists of breaking the compact surface of earth to a certain depth and to loosen the soil mass, so as to enable the roots of the crops to penetrate and spread into the soil. These objectives are include:

  • To obtain deep seed bed, suitable for different type of crops.
  • To add more humus and fertility to soil by covering the vegetation.
  • To destroy and prevent weeds.
  • To aerate the soil for proper growth of crops.
  • To increase water absorbing capacity of the soil.
  • To destroy the insects, pests and their breeding places and
  • To reduce the soil erosion.



Land leveling is expected to bring permanent improvement in the value of land. Leveling work is carried out to modify the existing contours of land so as to achieve certain objectives desired for efficient agricultural production system. These objectives are includes:

(i) efficient application of irrigation water,

(ii) improved surface drainage,

(iii) minimum soil erosion

(iv) increased conservation of rain water specially on dry lands and

(v) Provision of an adequate field size and even topography for efficient mechanization.

The animal drawn leveller consists of a wooden leveling board with a handle. Depending upon the soil condition the shape of the board varies. In the front portion of the board two hooks are provided for connecting it to the yoke.

Copy rights | Disclaimer | RKMP Policies