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Snails and Slugs


Snails and slugs are Invertebrata and belong to Phylum: Mollusca, Class: Gasteropoda.

Snails differ from slugs in having a spirally coiled shell over their body which in slugs is reduced and completely hidden under the mantle.

1. Common garden snails: Helix, Macrochlamys indica.

2. Green house snail: Opeas gracilis.

3. Giant African snail:


Rice Gundhi bug / Earhead bug.

 Scientific name: Leptocorisa acuta, Alydidae, Hemiptera.
Symptom of attack: Leaves turn yellow and later rusted from tip downwards.
Appearance of numerous brownish spots at the feeding sites / shrivelling of grains.
In the case of heavy infestation, the whole earhead may become devoid of mature grains. Its presence in the field is


Rice Swarming Caterpillar


Scientific name: Spodoptera mauritia, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera.

Symptom of attack: Nurseries found completely eaten away by the caterpillars’ overnight.

Nature of damage: Caterpillars march in large numbers in the evening hours and feed on the leaves of paddy seedlings till the morning and h


Management of Gall midge (Sanrhakeet)

1. Ploughing under the ratoon of previous crops can reduce infestation.

2. Control of grassy weeds and wild rice (alternate hosts) from surrounding areas can reduce Gall midge incidence.

3. Avoiding staggered planting (complete planting in an area within 3 weeks) to reduce infestation.

4. Chemical control: Carbofuran 3G @ 30 kg/ha is found to be highly effective in controlling the insect populations.


Rice Gall midge (Sanrhakeet)


Scientific name: Orseolia oryzae, Cecidomyiidae, Diptera. Local name: Sanrhakeet. Symptom of attack: The central shoot instead of producing leaf produces a long tubular structure. When the gall elongates as an external symptom of damage, the insect will be in pupal stage and ready for emergence. . Nature of damage: The maggot bores i
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