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Question : Whether very early hybrids are available to fit into rice-wheat cropping system in northern India?
Answer :

Presently only one hybrid viz. Pant Sankar Dhan-1 is of early duration (110-115 days). This can fit well into rice-wheat cropping system. However there are several early to very early hybrids under evaluation now. These may be available for commercial cultivation during next 3-5 years.

Question : Whether hybrids are suitable for all rice growing areas ?
Answer :

No, hybrids are not suitable for all the rice growing areas. The presently released hybrids have been specifically developed for high yielding irrigated areas. However, they have also been found suitable for favorable shallow lowlands. The present hybrids are not suitable for uplands, deep water, submerged conditions etc.

Question : Is there any difference in fertilizer schedule in hybrids as compared to the varieties ?
Answer :

Yes, For hybrid rice cultivation, it is recommended to apply nitrogen in four splits as basal, at active tillering, at panicle initiation and at heading stage as compared to two/three splits recommended for high yielding varieties of similar duration. The fourth split is recommended for hybrids as the sink size is larger due to higher number of spikelets per panicle. Similarly, potassic fertilizer is recommended for application in two splits as basal and at maximum tillering.

Question : Will there be any depletion of soil nutrients, if hybrids are grown continuously ?
Answer :

Though no systematic studies have been done so far, the indications are that there will not be any depletion of soil nutrients, if hybrids are grown continuously. Hybrids are high nutrient use efficient. The same dose of fertilizers applied to hybrids is utilized much more efficiently by the hybrids in giving the higher yields.

Question : What is the additional cost towards seed in cultivation of hybrids ?
Answer :

The average cost of hybrid seed is Rs. 100 per kg. The recommended seed rate is 15kg/ha. Hence for one hectare of hybrid rice cultivation, cost towards seed is Rs. 1500/-.

In case of HYVs, farmers generally use 30-40 kg seed per hectare, which is priced at Rs.10-15/- per kg. amounting to Rs. 300 to 400 per hectare. Hence the additional cost on seed in hybrid rice cultivation is Rs.1100 -1200/- per hectare.

Question : How hybrid rice cultivation differs from cultivation of high yielding varieties ?
Answer :

Cultivation of hybrid rice differs from that of high yielding varieties in few important aspects given below.

Q Since hybrid seed is costlier (Rs. 75-1 50/kg), lower seed rate of 15 kg/ha is recommended in case of hybrids, unlike in varieties where 30-40 kg/ha seed rate is being used.

Q A thin and sparse nursery is raised for hybrid crop using only 15-20 gm/m2 of seed bed, as compared to 30-40 gm/m2 in case of high yielding varieties.

Q Planting of single seedling per hill having 3-4 tillers is recommended for hybrids as compared to 4-5 seedlings/ hill planted in case of varieties.

Q The total quantity of fertilizers to be applied is same for the hybrids and varieties but hybrids are more efficient in utilizing the applied nutrients. It is recommended to apply nitrogen in four splits for hybrid rice (the last one at heading stage) unlike the two/three splits in HYVs and potassium in two splits.

Question : In which other countries, hybrid rice is grown ?
Answer :

China is the pioneer in development and large scale use of hybrid rice. First commercial rice hybrids in China were released in 1976. More than 15 million hectares, out of the total rice area of 32 million hectares is cultivated with hybrid rice. During the last 28 years, more than 300 million tons of additional rice was produced in China, as a result of large scale adoption of hybrid rice, besides reducing the rice area from 36 to 32 million hectares.

In addition to China, hybrid rice is cultivated in Vietnam, India, Philippines, Bangladesh, Indonesia and Egypt on a limited scale. The present area of hybrid rice in these countries is given in the table below.

Area under hybrid rice outside China.

S.No.
Country
Area (ha.)
1.
Vietnam
4,80,000
2.
India
2,80,000
3.
Philippines
1,00,000
4.
Myanmar
50,000
5.
Bangladesh
40,000
6.
Indonesia
20,000
7.
Egypt
10,000
8.
Others (USA, Columbia, Sri Lanka, etc.)
50,000
 
Total
10,30,000
 
 

 

 

 

Question : Why hybrid rice is needed for India ?
Answer :

Rice is staple food of India. Self sufficiency in rice production was achieved in India during 1980s, as a result of large scale adoption of semi-dwarf high yielding varieties and associated management technologies. During the last two decades, yield of the high yielding varieties has been plateaued. To sustain the self sufficiency in rice, additional production of 1.5 million tons of rice is needed every year. To achieve this targetted production, among the limited options, hybrid rice is one of the most feasible and practically adoptable approach, as hybrids give 1.0 — 1.5 t/ha (15 to 20%) additional yield. ( hybrid rice).

Question : How is hybrid rice seed produced ?
Answer :

Hybrid rice seed is produced in two steps viz.,

Step-1 : CMS multiplication (A x B).

 Step-2 : Hybrid Seed Production (A x R).

Both these activities have to be taken up under strict distance isolation of 500 and 100 meters, respectively. (seed science).

Question : What are the sources of sulphur?
Answer :

 Ammonium sulphate 24%, single super phosphate 16% and gypsum 17%.

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