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Rice belongs to genus Oryza and family Poaceae. The genus includes 24 species of which
O. sativa and O. glaberrima are cultivated. O. sativa has three sub species viz; Indica, Japonica
1. Indica: Indigenous to India is adapted to subtropical to tropical regions. In India, the
varieties are very tall, photosensitive, lodging poor fertilizer response and moderate filling.
They are late maturing. The morphological differences between the varieties are very wide
and awn less.
2. Japanica: It is confined to subtropical temperate region (Japan, China, Korea). Varieties are
very dwarf, erect, non-lodging, photo insensitive, early maturing, high yielding and fertilizer
responsive. The morphological difference between the varieties is very narrow and awnless.
(Hence crosses were made between Indica and Japanica – first cross is ADT 27 during 1964)
3. Javanica: It is known as a wild form of rice and is cultivated in some parts of Indonesia.
Varieties are the tallest, erect, poor filling and awned.