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History & Evolution
 
Historians believe that while the indica variety of rice was first domesticated in the area covering the foothills of the Eastern Himalayas (i.e. north-eastern India), stretching through Burma, Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and Southern China, the japonica variety was domesticated from wild rice in southern China which was introduced to India before the time of the Greeks. Chinese records of rice cultivation go back 4000 years.
It is said that ‘sociology’ is the present history and ‘History is past sociology’.  Whether sociology or history, it goes without saying that “rice is life”.  Let us explore the History and evolution of rice through a series of RLOs!
 

13
Jul

History and concept of Hybrid rice

1. The Hybrid Rice program in India was launched in 1989, through a systematic, goal oriented and time bound network project with the financial assistance from Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR).

2. Technical support from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), Philippines and the FAO, Rome and additional financial support from the UNDP, ICAR and NATP and Barwale Foundation were the major contributing factors for the remarkable success of hybrid rice technology in India.

File Courtesy: 
DRR training manual (HRPT)
13
Jul

Rice Sub species

Rice belongs to genus Oryza and family Poaceae. The genus includes 24 species of which
O. sativa and O. glaberrima are cultivated. O. sativa has three sub species viz; Indica, Japonica
and Javanica.

1. Indica: Indigenous to India is adapted to subtropical to tropical regions. In India, the
varieties are very tall, photosensitive, lodging poor fertilizer response and moderate filling.
They are late maturing. The morphological differences between the varieties are very wide
and awn less.

2. Japanica: It is confined to subtropical temperate region (Japan, China, Korea). Varieties are

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
13
Jul

Importance of Rice crop

1. It is the staple food crop for more than 60% of the world people.

2. In other countries attractive ready to eat products, which have, long shelf life eg. popped and puffed rice, instant or rice flakes, canned rice and fermented products are produced.

3. Protein is present in aleuron and endosperm 6 to 9% and average is 7.5%.

4. Rice straw is used as cattle feed, used for thatching roof and in cottage industry for preparation of hats, mats, ropes, sound absorbing straw board and used as litter material.

5. Rice husk is used as animal feed, for paper making, as fuel source.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
13
Jul

Distribution of rice crop

1. It grows from the tropics to subtropical and warm temperate countries upto 400S and
500N of the equator.

2. Most of the rice area lies between equator and 400N and 700 to 1400 EL. Highest yields were recorded between 300 and 45o N of the equator.

3. India, China and Egypt lying between 210 to 300 N, the average yield ranges from 2.0 to 5.7 t/ha. The countries near the equator shows an average yield of 0.8 to 1.4 t/h.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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