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Tamilnadu

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What is the use of LCC?

  • Farmers can determine the right time of application of N fertilizer by matching the leaf color with the color strip of LCC.
  • Farmers can decide on N fertilizer application, when leaf color measurement falls below the critical value.
File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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What is LCC?

  • LCC is a simple, easy to use and inexpensive tool to more efficiently manage N fertilizer in rice.
  • It is like a ruler about six inches in length, made of high-quality plastic and consists of six color shades from light yellowish green (No. 1) to dark green (No. 6).
  • The color strips are fabricated with veins resembling rice leaves.
File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Components of SSNM

The following tools and techniques are promoted for proper management of fertilizers.

  • Leaf color chart (LCC) to determine the correct time and amount of N fertilizer application.
  • Omission plot technique to calibrate the P and K fertilizer rate.
File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Benefits of SSNM

  • increase profit through optimal fertilizer use.
  • sustain soil fertility through balanced application of nutrients (fertilizers).
  • reduce pest and disease incidence through balanced nutrient use.
  • Protect soil, water and environment from contaminations by avoiding excess fertilizer use.
File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Need of SSNM

The SSNM approach is needed for proper management of fertilizers in rice because

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Site specific nutrient management (ssnm) technology for irrigated rice

Site Specific Nutrient Management (SSNM) is an approach for feeding rice with nutrients as and when needed. The SSNM approach ensures application of fertilizers for location and season-specific conditions. With the SSNM approach, fertilizers are applied

  •  at right time.
  •  in optimum amount.
  •  in the optimum ratio and
  •  with the appropriate method

to meet the deficit between rice demand for nutrients and the supply of nutrients from soil and organic inputs.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Rice fallow cultivation

Rice + Pigeon pea

Rice + green gram (moong bean)

Rice + Black gram, urd bean

Rice + Black gram

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Rice-Groundnut

1. This cropping pattern is being followed by the farmers Tamil Nadu.

2. After harvesting of rice crop, groundnut is grown in summer.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Rice-Rice-Rice

1. This crop rotation is most suitable for areas having high rainfall and assured irrigation facilities in summer months, particularly, in soils which have high water holding capacity and low rate of infiltration.

2. In some canal irrigated areas of Tamil Nadu, a cropping pattern of 300% intensity is followed. In such areas three crops of rice are grown in a year.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Rice and rice based cropping systems

The rice based cropping patterns being followed in the in Tamil Nadu are

1. Rice-Rice-Rice

2. Rice-Groundnut

3. Rice fallow cultivation

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Uses of rice bran oil

Rice bran oil is ideal oil for margarine and shortening. The flavor gives the good palatability and the desired prime form crystal provides smooth plasticity and spreading qualities. When processed to retain high levels of tocols, rice bran oil may be used as a natural antioxidant source for topically coating a wide range of products such as crackers, nuts, and similar snacks to extend shelf life.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Importance of rice bran oil

Rice bran oil is the oil extracted from the germ and inner husk of rice. Rice bran oil is rich in vitamin E, γ-oryzanol (an antioxidant that may help prevent heart attacks) and phytosterols (compounds believed to help lower cholesterol absorption) which may provide associated health benefits. It has a mild taste and is popular in Asian cuisine because of its suitability for high-temperature cooking methods such as deep-frying and stir-frying.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Rice bran oil

Bran oil is obtained by the extraction of rice bran with solvents. Bran oil is also

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
Photo Courtesy: 
http://tradeamrut.com/amrutBenefits.php
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Rice bran

Commercially rice bran is the most valuable by-product, which is characterized by its high fat (15 to 20%) and protein content. It also contains vitamins, minerals and many other useful chemicals. It is a potential source of edible oil. Because of its nutritional value, it is being used as feed for poultry and livestock. More stable defatted bran containing higher percentage of protein, vitamins and minerals is an excellent ingredient for both food and feed. The bran is the most nutritious byproduct of rice milling and is used almost exclusively as a feedstuff.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Rice husk

Rice husk that contains about 38% cellulose and 32% lignin and is one of the

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.dreamstime.com/photographie-stock-libre-de-droits-rice-husk-image14609007
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Broken rice

The broken rice is widely used in the food preparations and in the industries 

for making flour and in the manufacture of baby foods. The starch extracted from broken rice finds wider application in the pharmaceutical, textile and other industries.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/postproductioncourse/module06/Lesson_01.htm
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By products of rice

Modernization of rice milling Industry also results in production of quality by-products viz., broken rice, husk and rice bran. Technology is now available for the production of value- added products from these by-products. The by-products are

 1.  Broken rice

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Milling of Paddy

 

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Disadvantages of parboiling

1. It develops a relatively darker colour compared to raw rice

. 2. The traditional parboiled process produces and undesirable smell.

3. Parboiled rice takes more time to cook to the same degree of softness than raw rice.

4. Because of long soaking in traditional process, mycotoxins may develop in parboiled rice and cause health hazards.

5. Heat treatment during parboiling destroys some natural antioxidants and hence parboiled rice develops more rancidity than raw rice during storage.

6. Shelled parboiled rice requires more power for polishing.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Advantages of parboiling

1. The process imparts a hard texture and a smooth surface finish to the grain as a result which the brokens in the milled rice is minimized. While 90 % of the parboiled grains may remain unbroken; the brokens in raw rice could be as high as 50 %. The reduction in broken rice results in an increase of 3-5 per cent in the total yield of rice.

2. Insects find it more difficult to bite and eat their way through the hard and smooth surface of parboiled rice.

3. The loss of solids in the gruel during cooking is also less in parboiled than in raw rice.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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