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Crop Protection with vernacular Names

Crop Protection with vernacular Names
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Rust red flour beetle

 

Scientific name: Tribolium castaneum .

Family: Tenebrionidae.

Order: Coleoptera.

 Host range: Broken grains/ mechanically damaged grains, germ portion and milled products.

Heavy infestation causes stinking odour in flour, adversely affecting the dough quality. It is an important pest for mill machinery. Nature of damage: Grubs feed on milled products.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/26_6230.htm
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Angoumois grain moth or Grain moth

 

Scientific name: Sitotroga cerealella.

Family: Gelechiidae.

Order: Lepidoptera.

Host range: Paddy, maize, jowar, barley and wheat (rarely).

It is not capable of attacking milled rice or other cereal products.

Symptom of damage:

Grains with circular emergence hole with characteristic flap/trap door

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/storage-pests/insects
29
जुलै

Lesser grain borer/Hooded grain borer/paddy borer beetle

 

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/storage-pests/insects
29
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Rice weevil

 

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
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Storage Pests of Rice

Storage pests of rice are divided into primary pests and secondary pests.

PRIMARY PESTS:

1. Rice weevil.

2. Lesser grain borer/Hooded grain borer/paddy borer beetle.

3. Angoumois grain moth or Grain moth.

SECONDARY PESTS:

1. Rust red flour beetle

2. Long headed flour beetle

3. Flat grain beetle

4. Saw toothed grain beetle

5. Rice moth

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
29
जुलै

Rice Gundhi bug / Earhead bug.

 Scientific name: Leptocorisa acuta, Alydidae, Hemiptera.
Symptom of attack: Leaves turn yellow and later rusted from tip downwards.
Appearance of numerous brownish spots at the feeding sites / shrivelling of grains.
In the case of heavy infestation, the whole earhead may become devoid of mature grains. Its presence in the field is made out by its strong smell.

Nature of damage: Both adults and nymphs do the damage. The nymphs start feeding 3 to 4 hours after hatching. They feed on the leaf sap near the tip/ on milky sap in developing spikelets at milky stage.

Sucking of the milky sap causes ill-filled/ partial filled and chaffy grains. Serious infestation can reduce the yield by 50%.

The straw gives off-flavour that is unattractive to cattle.

Management: Chemical control: Spraying of Endosulphon 35 EC or Quinolphos 1.5% Dust @ 25 kg/ha, or Quinolphos 25 EC @ 1.5 liter in 500 liter water / ha is found to be highly effective in controlling the insect populations.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
29
जुलै

Rice Swarming Caterpillar

 

Scientific name: Spodoptera mauritia, Noctuidae, Lepidoptera.

Symptom of attack: Nurseries found completely eaten away by the caterpillars’ overnight.

Nature of damage: Caterpillars march in large numbers in the evening hours and feed on the leaves of paddy seedlings till the morning and hide during daytime.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
29
जुलै

Management of Gall midge (Sanrhakeet)

1. Ploughing under the ratoon of previous crops can reduce infestation.

2. Control of grassy weeds and wild rice (alternate hosts) from surrounding areas can reduce Gall midge incidence.

3. Avoiding staggered planting (complete planting in an area within 3 weeks) to reduce infestation.

4. Chemical control: Carbofuran 3G @ 30 kg/ha is found to be highly effective in controlling the insect populations.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
29
जुलै

Rice Gall midge (Sanrhakeet)

 

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
Mr. Y. Kondal Rao (DRR)
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Management of Rice stem borer (Tana bedhak)

In Nursery: In 10 - 12 days nursery plant, apply Carbofuran 3G @ 250 gm, or Forate 10G @100 gm per 100 m2 nursery area.

Roughing: Tillers showing dead hearts should be removed and their destruction must be outside the field, it reduces the infestation.

Biological control: Use 8 Trichochord (Bio-agent Trichogramma) three times (total 24 in numbers), at one week interval just after one month of transplanting for one hectare.

Chemical control: Cartop Hydrochloride 4G @ 20 kg/ha is found to be highly effective in controlling the insect populations.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
29
जुलै

Rice stem borer (Tana bedhak)

 

Scientific name: Scirpophaga incertulas, Pyraustidae, Lepidoptera Local name: Tana bedhak.

Symptoms of attack: A number of stem borer moths seen dead and floating on the water in the fields. In the vegetative stage, dead hearts seen in the affected tillers and in the reproductive stage, whiteear may be seen.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
CRRI
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Insects in Rice crop of Uttar pradesh

Rice crop of different regions within Uttar Pradesh state is attacked by five major insects. They are-

1. Rice stem borer.

2. Rice gall midge.

3. Rice swarming caterpillar.

4. Rice leaf folder.

5. Rice gandhi bug / earhead bug.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
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जुलै

Management of False Smut of Rice

- Use of recommended doses of fertilizer.

- Deep ploughing in summer stubbles.

- Avoid flow of irrigation water from infected fields to healthy fields.

- Chemical spray: 2 spray of 0.1% Propiconazole (Tilt) solution (1 gm/lt water).

First spray before panicle emergence and second spray 10 days just after panicle emergence.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
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जुलै

False Smut of Rice

 

Symptoms: The fungus transforms individual grains into greenish spore balls of velvetty appearance.

Due to the development of the fructification of the pathogen, the ovaries are transformed into large velvetty green masses. Usually only a few spikelets in a panicle are affected.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
29
जुलै

Management of Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) of Rice

- Burn the stubbles. - Use optimum dose of fertilizers

. - Avoid clipping of tip of seedling at the time of transplanting.

- Avoid flooded conditions.

- Remove weed hosts.

- Grow resistant cultivars like Birsamati, Birsa Vikas Dhan 110, Birsa Vikas Dhan 109, Hazaridhan, Sadabahar, Birsa Dhan 108, Shivam and Swarna showed resistance against bacterial leaf blight (BLB) of Rice.

- Seed Treatment: with Carbendazim 50 WP or Beam (Tricyclazole) @ 2 gm/kg seed.

- Foliar spray: Make solution of 2 gm Streptocycline in 10 lt water (0.02%).

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
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Pathogen of Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) of Rice

1. The bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae pv. Oryzae is strict aerobe, gram negative, non spore forming, rod shaped with size ranging from 1-2 x 0.8-1.0um with monotrichous polar flagellum of 6-8 um. The bacterial cells are capsulated and are joined to form an aggregate mass. Colonies are circular, convex with entire margins, whitish yellow to straw yellow later and opaque.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
29
जुलै

Bacterial Leaf Blight (BLB) of Rice

 

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
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Management of Sheath Blight of Rice

- Avoid excess doses of fertilizers.
- Adopt optimum spacing.
- Eliminate weed hosts.
- Apply organic amendments.
- Avoid flow of irrigation water from infected fields to healthy fields.
- Deep ploughing in summer and burning of stubbles.
- Seed Treatment: with Carbendazim 50 WP or Beam (Tricyclazole) @ 2 gm/kg seed.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
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Pathogen of Sheath Blight of Rice

Rhizoctonia solani (Sexual stage : Thanetophorus cucumeris).

The fungus produces usually long cells of septate mycelium which are hyaline when young, yellowish brown when old. It produces large number of globoses sclerotia, which are initially white, later turn to brown or purplish brown.

Mode of spread and survival of Sheath Blight of Rice: The pathogen can survive as sclerotia or mycelium in dry soil for about 20 months but for 5-8 months in moist soil. It infects more than 188 crop species in 32 families. Sclerotia spread through irrigation water.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
29
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Sheath Blight of Rice

 

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
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