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Crop Protection with vernacular Names

Crop Protection with vernacular Names
27
जुलै

Yellow stem borer (Khod kida)

 

1. Pest Name - Yellow stem borer.

2. Scientific Name - Scirpophaga incertulas.

3. Local Name - Khod kida.

4. Pests characteristics - Regular in occurrence throughout the year.

5. Infestation intensities - Low to severe upto 80.00 per cent.

6. Crop Growth stages - All stages of crop growth i.e. seedling, tillering and boot leaf stage.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Symptoms of Bacterial Leaf Streak disease

 

1. Bacterial Leaf Streak first appears as short, water-soaked streaks between the veins, which become longer and translucent and turn to light brown or yellowish brown.

2. Large areas of the leaf may become dry due to numerous streaks. At the later stage the disease is indistinguishable from the bacterial leaf blight.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/Y4011E/y4011e0x.htm
27
जुलै

Bacterial Leaf Streak (BLS) of rice

 

1. Causal Organism : Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

  2. Bacterial Leaf Streak The disease is usually observed during the tillering stage of the rice crop.

3. The rice plant can easily recover at the later growth stages and grain yield losses are minimal.

4. Losses as high as 32.3% in 1000-grain weight due to BLS were reported.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Management of Bacterial Leaf Blight disease

 

1. Use seed from disease free crop.

2. Treat the seeds by soaking it for 12hrs in a mixed solution of streptocycline(0.15%) and wetable Ceresan (0.05%) followed by hot water treatment at 52oC-54oC foe 30 minutes.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Management of Bacterial Leaf Blight disease

 

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Symptoms of Bacterial Leaf Blight disease

1. The bacterium induces either wilting of plants or leaf blight. Wilting syndrome known as 'Kresek' occurs sporadically in the fields causing serious damage.

2. Bacterial leaf blight commonly occurs within 3-4 weeks after transplantation of the crop. Kresek results either in the death of whole plants or wilting of only a few leaves.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Bacterial Leaf Blight disease

1. Causal Organism: Xanthomonas compestris pv. Oryzae.

2. Bacterial blight is a monsoon disease and its incidence and severity is very much influenced by rainfall, number of rainy days, and susceptibility of the cultivar and nitrogen fertilizer application.

3. Severe epidemics recorded in 1979 and 1980 in northwestern India, reducing the grain yields drastically.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Management Practices for Control of Sheath Rot Disease

1. Removal of infected stubbles after harvest and optimum plant spacing are among the cultural practices that can reduce the disease.

2. Application of potash at tillering stage is also recommended. Foliar spray of calcium sulfate and zinc sulfate was found to control sheath rot.

3. At booting stage, seed treatment and foliar spraying with carbendazim or mancozeb was found to reduce sheath rot.

4. Foliar spraying with benomyl and copper oxychloride were also found to be effective.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Symptoms of Sheath rot disease

1. Infection occurs on the uppermost leaf sheath enclosing the young panicles at late booting stage.

2. Initial symptoms are oblong or irregular spots or lesions, 0.5-1.5 cm long, with dark reddish brown margins and gray centre.

3. Lesions may also consist of diffuse reddish brown discoloration in the sheath.

4. Lesions enlarge and often coalesce and may cover the entire leaf sheath.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.ipmimages.org/browse/detail.cfm?imgnum=5390497
27
जुलै

Details of Sheath rot disease

Period of occurrence of Sheath rot disease: The disease is important during the heading towards the maturity stages of the rice crop. It usually attacks the uppermost leaf sheath that encloses the panicles and causes rotting of the panicles.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
Dr. D. Krishnaveni (DRR)
27
जुलै

Sheath rot disease

1. Causal organism: Sarocladium oryzae (Sawada) W. Gams & D. Hawksw.

2. The pathogen generally attacks the upper most leaf sheath enclosing the young panicles.

3. Oblong or irregular spots with chocolate brown colour develop on the boot leaf sheath. Sheath rots disease of rice, caused by Sarocladium oryzae.

4. It inflicts damage to the uppermost flagleaf sheath by infecting the sheath covering the young panicles at the booting stage.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
Dr. D. Krishnaveni (DRR)
27
जुलै

Damage symptoms of False Smut disease

1. In one panicle, only few seeds showing the disease symptoms.

2. Individual grains of the panicle are transformed into yellow or greenish velvety spore balls.

3. The spore balls are covered by a membrane in the early stages, which bursts on further growth and the loose velvety pseudomorphs become visible.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.flickr.com/photos/cropprotection/5074767888/
27
जुलै

Conditions favourable for False Smut disease

1. Low temperature (20°C).
2. High relative humidity (>92%).
3. Moderate rainfall with intermittent clear and drizzling weather during flowering.
4. More prevalent in seasons favorable for good growth and high yields.
5. Host pants: Grasses and Wild rice.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

False Smut Disease

Causal organism: Ustilaginoidea virens (Cke.)

Local name:

False smut is a fungal disease and is more severe in the years of high rainfall.

The farmers consider its incidence as an omen of Good Harvest.

Period of occurrence : Panicle emergence .

Extent of yield loss : Negligible, Udupi district 23% and DWR 3%.

• 1000 grain weight by 48%.

• Chaffyness by 40%.

• Seedling growth.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
Dr. D. Krishnaveni (DRR)
27
जुलै

Control Measures for Rice Leaf Scald disease

Cultural practices to control Leaf Scald:

• Use disease free seeds for sowing.

• Do not use high nitrogenous fertilizer.

Chemical control measures for Leaf Scald :

If the disease observed in the field then spray 0.1% Carbendazim solution or 2g mancozeb or 2.25g Zineb in 1liter of water

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Damage Symptoms of Leaf Scald disease

1. Lesions of alternating light tan and dark brown starting from leaf tips or edges.

2. Lesions oblong with light brown halos in mature leaves.

3. Individual lesions 1-5 cm long and 0.5-1 cm wide or may almost cover the entire leaf.

4. Continuous enlargement and coalescing of lesions result in blighting of a large part of the leaf blade.

5. The affected areas dry out giving the leaf a scalded appearance.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Leaf Scald disease

1. Causal Organism: Monographella albescens.

2. Period of occurrence: The disease is important during the tillering and stem elongation stages of the crop.

3. Extent of yield loss: In India 20-30% yield losses were reported due to this disease.

4. Alternate hosts: The hosts of the fungus include Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. (cockspur) and Oryza sativa L. (rice).

5. Mode of transmission/ dissemination.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Control Measures for Rice Brown leaf spot

Cultural practices to control Brown leaf spot:

1. Use disease free seeds for sowing.

2. Do not use high nitrogenous fertilizer.

3. Use resistant variety Amruth.

Chemical control of Brown leaf spot:

4. If the disease observed in the field than spray 2g mancozeb or 2.25g Zineb in 1liter of water.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Damage symptoms of Brown leaf spot

1. The symptoms of the disease appear on the coleoptile, the leaves, leaf sheath and also the glumes.

2. On the leaves the spots vary in size (1cm) and shape from minute dots to circular, eye shaped or oval spots is seen in the central portion.

3. The seeds are some times shriveled and discolored.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
27
जुलै

Details of Brown leaf spot disease

Period of occurrence: Seedling to maturity.

Extent of yield loss: 50-90% in extreme cases.

Collateral hosts: Digitaria sanguinalis, Leersia hexandra, Echinochloa colona, Pennisetum typhoides, Setariitalica, Cynodon dactylon.

 Favorable conditions for the pathogen:

 • Temperature of 25-30°C .

• Relative humidity (>90%).

• Heavy and late north-east monsoon.

File Courtesy: 
RARS, Karjat
Photo Courtesy: 
Dr. D. Krishnaveni (DRR)
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