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Crop Protection with vernacular Names

Crop Protection with vernacular Names
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Swarming caterpillar ( Nel Padaipuzhu )

 

1. Common name- Swarming caterpillar.

 2. Scientific name - Spodoptera mauritia .

3. Vernacular name - Nel Padaipuzhu ( நெல் படைப்புழு).

Symptom of damage of Swarming caterpillar

• Larvae cut the seedlings in large scale  .

• Severe infestation - cattle grazing appearance to the field.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
Photo Courtesy: 
TNRRI,Aduthurai
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Management of Paddy stemborer ( Thandu thulaippan)

• Resistant varieties: Ratna, Jaya, TKM 6.

• Avoid close planting and continuous water stagnation.

 • Pull out and destroy the affected tillers.

 • Set up light traps to attract and kill the moths.

 • Harvest the crop upto the ground level and disturb the stubbles .

• Release the egg parasitoid, Trichogramma japonicum on twice @ 5 cc/ha/ (followed by monocrotophos 36 SL spray thrice @ 1000 ml/ha on 58, 65 and 72 DAT).

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
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Paddy Stemborer ( Thandu thulaippan)

 

1. Common name - Paddy stemborer .

2. Scientific name - Scirpophaga incertulas.

3. Vernacular name - Thandu thulaippan (தண்டுத்துளைப்பான்).

 Symptom of damage of Paddy stemborer:

• Presence of brown coloured egg mass near leaf tip.

• Caterpillar bore into central shoot of paddy seedling and tiller.

• Causes drying of the central shoot known as “dead heart” .

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
Photo Courtesy: 
TNRRI,Aduthurai
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Rice case worm ( Nel kootu puzhu )

 

1. Common name - Rice case worm.

2. Scientific name - Nymphula depunctalis.

  3. Vernacular name - Nel kootu puzhu.

  Symptom of damage of Rice case worm:

• Caterpillars feed on green tissues of the leaves and leave become whitish papery.

 • Tubular cases around the tillers by cutting the apical portion of leaves.

 • Floating of tubular cases on the water .

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
Photo Courtesy: 
TNRRI,Aduthurai
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Green leafhopper ( Pachai thathu poochi)

 

1. Common name - Green leafhopper .

2. Scientific name - Nephotettix virescens .

3. Vernacular name - Pachai thathu poochi ( பச்சை தத்துப்பூச்சி ).

Symptom of damage of Green leafhopper:

1.Yellowing of leaves from tip to downwards.

2. Vector for the diseases viz., Rice tungro virus, rice yellow & transitory yellowing.

File Courtesy: 
TNRRI, Aduthurai
Photo Courtesy: 
TNRRI,Aduthurai
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Chemical Control of Rodents

 

Compounds, which kill the rats by their chemical action, are known as rodenticides. These poisonous rodenticides can be divided into two groups.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
APRRI, Maruteru
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Mechanical methods of Rodent Control

 

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
APRRI, Maruteru
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Physical methods of Rodent Control

 

Physical methods used for control of rats are,

a. Rat proofing: While constructing new godowns, care should be taken to construct them rat proof.

The characteristics of an ideal godown are as follows: Godowns should be away from habituation.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
APRRI, Maruteru
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Rodent Control

 

Two methods are commonly adopted for rodent control. Those are non chemical and chemical.

I. NON-CHEMICAL: • Physical methods • Mechanical • Cultural • Biological

II. CHEMICAL: • Acute/ Single dose poison • Chronic/ Multiple dose poison • Fumigation of rat burrows

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
29
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Smaller bandicoot

 

Smaller bandicoot, Indian mole rat, Lesser bandicoot, Outdoor rat, Bandicota bengalensis.

 Nature of damage: Being omnivorous it feeds on grains, fruits, vegetables, nuts, sometimes flesh of young ones and dead animals.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.itsnature.org/ground/mammals-land/long-nosed-bandicoot/
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Larger bandicoot

 

Larger bandicoot, The Bandicoot, Bandicota indica Nature of damage: It makes big burrows, which weaken the foundation of walls, river bunds, railway tracks etc.

It damages crops by cutting tillers/ leaves thus reducing yield drastically. It hoards grain in burrows. In stores, it mainly depends on cereals and other grains.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.mammalz.com/view/10809/Bandicoot
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Norway Rat

 

Norway rat, Brown rat, Sewer rat, Ship rat, Rattus norvegicus Nature of damage: Feeds on grain.

Damage containers i.e. bags/ cartons. Pollutes grain with excreta, droppings and hairs.

Spread various diseases. Droppings found in groups and spindle shaped.

Habits: It is habituated of making burrows outside grain stores but often lives in sewers.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://nematode.unl.edu/norwayrat.htm
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House mouse

 

House mouse, Mus musculus. Nature of damage: Their infestation imparts a typical smell to store rooms and stocks.

They feed on cereals, cereal products, vegetables, meat, fats, carbohydrates, etc. and can damage wooden furniture, paper, clothes, rubber, plastic and leather goods, etc.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://bioweb.uwlax.edu/bio203/s2009/smith_meg2/
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House rat

 

1. House rat, Roof rat, Black rat, Rattus rattus.

Nature of damage: It eats up all food materials and can damage wood, plastic, rubber and even soft metals also.

As it is responsible for plague, it is considered as the most expensive rat of India. Generally the droppings are found scattered and banana shaped.

Habit: Being nocturnal in habit, it can be rarely seen during day time. It is a good swimmer and good climber also.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.mouse-rat.com/
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Types of rodents

Rodents are one of the most important non - insects pests of agricultural crops, particularly rice.

Rodents are Vertebrata and belongs to Class: Mammalia and Order: Rodentia.

Rodents are five types

1. House rat.

2. House mouse.

3. Norway rat.

4. Smaller bandicoot.

5. Larger bandicoot.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.mouse-rat.com/
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Snails and Slugs

 

Snails and slugs are Invertebrata and belong to Phylum: Mollusca, Class: Gasteropoda.

Snails differ from slugs in having a spirally coiled shell over their body which in slugs is reduced and completely hidden under the mantle.

1. Common garden snails: Helix, Macrochlamys indica.

2. Green house snail: Opeas gracilis.

3. Giant African snail: Achantina fulica.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.yates.com.au/problem-solver/problems/snails-and-slugs/
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Rice moth

 

Scientific name: Corcyra cephalonica.

Family: Galleridae.

Order: Lepidoptera  .

Host range: Rice, jowar, other millets, whole cereals, cereal products, pulses, processed products of cereals, pulses, oil seeds, nuts, dry fruits and milled spices.

Symptom of damage: Presence of dense webbing of grains and foul smell, which makes the grains unfit for human consumption.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://archive.gipsa.usda.gov/tech-servsup/visualref/VRI/HTML_Pages/Insects/bug_07.htm
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Saw toothed grain beetle

 

Scientific name: Oryzaephilus surinamensis

Family: Silvanidae

Order: Coleoptera.

Host range: Rice, wheat, maize, cereal products, oil seeds and dry fruits.

Symptom of damage: Presence of off odour in grain.

Nature of damage: Adults and grub cause roughening of grain surface and off odour in grain.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/26_5990.htm
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Flat Grain Beetle

 

Scientific name: Cryptolestus minutas, Laemophloeus pusillus

Family: Cucujidae

Order: Coleoptera.

Host range: Rice, maize, wheat with excessive brokens, different flours, groundnut particularly with high moisture and mouldy grain.

Nature of damage: Both adults and grubs feed on stored products and are important pests of mills.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/26_18475.htm
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Long headed flour beetle

Scientific name: Latheticus oryzae

Family: Tenebrionidae

Order: Coleoptera

Host range: Cereal flours, packaged food, rice and rice products, grains with excessive dust, dockage and broken grains with high moisture contents preferred.

Nature of damage: Both grubs and adults feed.

Egg: White, smooth, cylindrical eggs at random in grain and seams of the bags.

File Courtesy: 
C S Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur
Photo Courtesy: 
http://www.ozanimals.com/Insect/Longheaded-Flour-Beetle/Latheticus/oryzae.html
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