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The bacteria causing the disease X. oryzae pv.oryzicola occur as rods. They are 1.2 x 0.3-0.5 µm in dimension. They are single, occasionally in pairs but not in chains. The bacteria have no spores and no capsules. They move with the aid of a single polar flagellum. They are Gram-negative and aerobic and can grow favourably at 28 °C.
The bacterial colonies on nutrient agar are pale yellow, circular, smooth, convex, and viscid and have an entire margin. Their growth on slant is filiform. Growth in nutrient broth is moderate with a surface ring growth without a definite pellicle.
• Presence of the bacteria on leaves and in the water or those surviving in the debris left after harvest.
• High temperature and high humidity.
• Early stage of planting from maximum tillering to panicle initiation.