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The disease was first detected in Nongpoh, Meghalaya and later in Jowai area in the NE hill states. The disease causes 5-10% yield losses and most of the local varieties are affected. The panicle emerges from the leaf sheath as a straight, dirty coloured , hard cylindrical spike, reduced in size, much resembling an agarbatti or udbatta and hence the name. No grains are formed on the affected ear and cause 100% sterility of the panicle. Infected panicles are shorter in size.
The disease is caused by Ephelis oryzae (Balansia oryzae). The fungus forms a stroma over the entire length and girth of the inflorescence and black, convex pycnidia are formed in the stroma. Pycnidiospores are hyaline, 4-5 celled and needle shaped.
The fungus is seed borne and enters the plant during germination. The fungus survives on grasses lsachne elegans, Cynodon dactylon and Pennisutam sp. during off-season. The disease incidence is less on very early and late sown crops.
The disease control measures are:
• Hot water treatment of seeds at 50-54°C for 10 minutes before sowing
• Avoiding the use of seeds from infected fields
• Seed treatment with 0.1 % Carbendazim and spraying of same fungicide at the panicle initiation stage
This disease has recently assumed seriousness in NE region. The disease causes spots or lesions mostly on leaf sheath, extending to the leafblades under favourable conditions. The lesions are large, oblong with grayish white center and brownish red or purplish red margin. In advanced stages, sclerotia are formed on the lesions, which are easily detached. In severe cases, all the leaves of a plant are blighted resulting death of the plant. This is a soil borne disease.
The disease is caused by Rhizoctonia solani. The fungus produces sclerotia, which are dark brown-to-brown, globose and 4-5 mm in diameter.
The sclerotia of the fungus survive in the soil for several months and float to the water surface during land preparation. The slerotia infect the pIants and produce mycelium causing spots or lesions. The disease is destructive in high humidity and warm temperature. Close planting and heavy nitrogen fertilization tends to increase the incidence of the disease.
Control measures of the disease include:
• Growing resistant varieties
• Draining of fields
• Soil drenching with 0.1 % Cerasan wet
Application of Pseudomonas jluorescents as seed treatment (600 g/ha) followed by soil application (2.5 kg/ha)
1. The disease occurs in all states of NE region coinciding generally with maturity stage of the crop. Typical symptoms appear on the upper part of the leaves. Lesions start either from the tip or along the margin and are oblong with characteristic alternate zonations of the dark brown or light yellow areas.
2. The disease is caused by Rhynchosporium oryzae. The pathogen produces conidia, which are hyaline, 2-celled and unequal with a short lateral beak on the apical cell.
Management of the disease may be done through -
• Application of higher doses of potash (80 kg ~O/ha)
• Growing of resistant varieties
• Spraying of 0.1 % Carbendazim and 0.1 % Thiophanate-methyl 3 times starting from the appearance of disease at 15 days interval
1. The disease causes blighting of seedlings in the nursery and leaf spotting on the leaves and leaf sheaths in the field.
2. The spots are round to oval and dark brown; in severe cases they may coalesce to form large patches. The disease occurs mostly in deficient and poor soils and commonly referred to as poor man's disease.
3. Infection is also seen on glumes, neck of the panicle and grains as brown discolouration. This disease is more common in Meghalaya and Tripura, particularly in boro season .
4. The disease is caused by Helminthosporium oryzae (Bipolaris oryzae). The fungus produces conidiophores, which are long, septate and bear conidia singly in a sympodial manner.
5. The conidia are brown, 8-10 celled, slightly curved with a bulge in the middle and tapering towards end.
The fungus over winters mainly in infected plant parts and seeds.
6. Diseased seeds give rise to the seedling blight and secondary infection is by conidia formed on the seedlings, which become wind borne.
The control measures of Brown spot disease:
1. As the disease is seed borne, seed treatment with Thiram @ 2 g/kg seeds gives effective control
2. Application of nitrogen in three split doses and correction of soil deficiency like potash, manganese and zinc are helpful
3. Correction of soil acidity by liming help in reducing the disease.
4. Use ofHYVs resistant to the disease
5. Spraying 0.1 % Hinosan 50 EC or 0.2% Dithane M-45 (75 WP) mixed with 0.1 % Sandovit helps to control the disease
1. This is the most important and destructive disease of rice in all NE states causing yield losses up to 35-50%.
2. The fungus, Pyricularia grisea attacks all aerial parts of the plant at all stages of growth, although leaves, nodes and neck of the panicle are found to affect more commonly.
3. spindle shaped spots with ashy center and brown margin are typical symptoms appear on the leaves.
4. Many such spots unite resulting in larger irregular necrotic patches on leaf and in severe cases the affected fields give a blastedlbumt appearance. Hence the name blast has been given to this disease.
5. Symptoms also appear on leaf sheath, calm, calm node and glumes as dark brown or black coloured discolouration.
6. At the time of flower emergence, the neck of the panicle is infected, which becomes blackened and shriveled. This is called neck rot, panicle blast or more commonly neck blast. Neck infection in the early stage of crop growth leads to breaking of panicle and formation of chaffy grains, which results in maximum yield losses.
Control Measures of Rice last:
1. Destructing weed hosts present on the bunds/terraces of the field
2 . Applying fertilizer NPK @ 60:60:40 for high yield with low disease intensity and applying nitrogen in three equal split doses at i) a week after sowing, ii) at tillering stage and iii) at panicle initiation stage
3. Adjusting the dates of sowing. Early sown crop (April-May) has less foliar blast damage as compared to late sown crop (June-July).
4. Growing tolerant/resistant varieties to minimize the disease for maximum yields Soaking seeds for 24 hours in 0.1 % carbendazim solution prior to sowing in nursery beds or in a direct sown crop
5. Root dipping of rice seedlings for 12-16 hours in fungicidal solution of carbendazim @ 1 gllit can protect the transplanted plants up to 30-50 days after transplanting (DAT)
6. Spraying offungicides like Hinosan @ 1 mill or cabendazirn @ 1 g/l or Tr
1. Outbreak of rice ear-cutting caterpillar was recorded in Assam and Manipur (Pathak et aI., 2001), Arunachal, Meghalaya and Tripura during 1982 (Barwal, 1983).
2. During 1977, outbreak of black hairy caterpillar was recorded in Meghalaya (Sachan and Gangwar, 1979). Rice hispa outbreak was recorded in Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh in 1987 (Pathak, 1987).
3. During 1986 - 1990, two species of shield bug (Eusarocoris gultieger Jhunl. and Nezara viridula L.) were found to infest rice at milky soft dough and hard dough stages in Manipur (pathak et aI., 2001).
4. Among the five species of rice stem borers, sesamia inference Walk. and Chilo polychrysus Walk occurred in the valleys in the low proportions. Stem borers though regular pests in the region are recorded as occasional pests in Meghalaya.
5. Among plant hoppers, white backed plant hopper was a major problem in the early summer crop of rice in Manipur (Barwal and Rao, 1986).
6. Meinodas and Shaikh (1989) reported different species of grasshoppers their host plants and period of activity in Manipur.
7. A number of parasites and predators were recorded on rice-insect pests in Manipur (Barwal et ai, 1994) and in Meghalaya (Azad Thakur and Barwal, 1987). Platygaster oryzae Cu. is the major larval parasitoid of rice gall midge and play significant role in its control.
1. Slug caterpillar (Parasa lepida) is a sporadic pest on rice. The larvae feed on the leaves leaving only the midrib.
2. It is recorded for the first time from NE region infesting rice crop during rainy season (Shylesha et al., 2006).
3. The other insect pests of minor economic importance include flea beetles (Chaetocnema basalis and Monolepta signata), stemfly, mole and field crickets, black bug, stink bug, blue beetles and black aphids.
1. Caterpillars of skipper (Pelopidas mathias) are yellowish greenwith four white dorsal stripes.
2. It has a large head and tapering body The caterpillars defoliate the plant.
3. The adult is a fast moving skipper.
1. Homed caterpillar (Melanitis leda ismene) IS a minor pest of rice.
2. Female adult is dark brown butterfly, which lays white eggs on rice leaves.
3. Caterpillars are green in colour. It feed’s on the leaves at night and remains stationary during daytim.
4. Pupation takes place on leaf. The insect generally infests the crop during vegetative phase mainly on lowland rice.