|Package of Practices
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1. Root aphids (Rhopalosiphum rufiabdommalls and tetraneura nigriabdominalis) are recorded for the first time in India, causing severe damage to the rice crop under upland conditions in the entire region (Sbylesha et a/. , 2006).
2. Two species of root aphids VIZ., black root aphids (Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis) and brown root aphid (Tetraneura nigriabdominalis) infest the roots of upland rice.
3. The brown root aphid causes more damage than the black aphid. The infestation starts from 48 DAS and the incidence nymphs continue to increase till 83 DAS followed by a decrease at 90 DAS.
4. The aphids feed on roots m colonies around the upper and middle parts of the roots by sucking the sap. The leaves of infested plants become yellowish, wilt and result m stunted growth of plant. The infestation reduces the number of tillers resulting and low yield.
1. Gundhibug (Leptocorisa oratorious) is the most serious pests of rice under upland and lowland conditions.
2. Both nymphs and adults suck the sap from the developing grains, which results chaffy grains.
3. Nymphs are more destructive than adults. These bugs cause Yield losses up to 20-40%.
1. Rice green semilooper (Naranga aenescens) is one of the major pests of rice.
2. It infests 30-40 days old upland crop and continues to Damage the crop up to 65 days. The larvae feed mainly on leaves and defoliate them.
3. Apanteles sp. parasitize up to 80% of green semilooper in field conditions.
1. The outbreak of rice ear cutting caterpillar (Mythimna separata) was recorded during 1982 initially in Assam and then spread to Manipur, Arunachal, Meghalaya and Tripura.
2. It is an important pest of rice in the region. During outbreaks, it causes 100% damage to the standing crop•
3. The larvae cut the ear head and leave behind the rice shoot resulting in as if the animals have grazed it. It directly affects the yield of the crop.
1. Rice hispa (Dicladispa armigera) is a small blue-black beetle covered with spines. The grubs make long winding tunnels into leaves whereas adults scrape the chlorophyll.
2. The affected leaves turn whitish and membranous and ultimately dry up. Scrapping of the upper surface of the leaf blade leaving only the lower epidermis as white streaks parallel to the midrib.
3. Tunnelling of larvae through the leaftissue causes irregular translucent white patches that are parallel to the leaf veins. Damaged leaves wither off and damaged leaves turn rice fields whitish and membranous that appears burnt when severely infested.
4. Severity of the damage is related to crop growth stage of attack. The larvae move down between the leaf sheaths until they reach the apical bud or one of the lateral buds.
5. They lacerate the tissue of the bud and feed until pupation. Hispa occurs severely in Assam, Meghalaya and Tripura bordering Bangladesh. Rice hispa outbreaks were recorded in 1987 in Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh.
6. Spraying of Beauveria bassiana@3 g/l controls rice hispa.
1. Gall midge (Orseolia oryzae) is a serious pest in Manipur and also occurs throughout the region as a common pest.
2. It is found in both lowland and upland conditions during the tillering stage of the rice plant. It has also been reported to occur in deep water rice in Assam.
3. Its Population density is favoured mainly by cloudy or rainy weather, cultivation of high tillering varieties, intensive management practices and low parasitization.
4. The adults are nocturnal and they can easily be Collected using light traps. They mate soon after emergence. Each female midge mates only once. It can lay as many as 100-200 eggs in its lifespan of 4 days.
5. The male midge lasts for 12-18 hours soon after emergence. larval and pupal development is completed inside the gall. One maggot occupies one tiller, Three to four larval stages are observed in 14-20 days. Pupation takes 2-7 days. Before adult emergence, the pupa uses its abdominal spines to reach the top of the gall.
6. The feeding causes formation of a gall called 'silver' or 'onion' shoots. It makes exit holes for adult emergence. During the dry season, the insect remains dormant as a pupa in dormant buds of alternate host.
7. Rice gall midge is parasitized by six hymenopterous parasitoids like Tetrastichus sp., Ceratosolen sp., Aneristus ceroplastate, Cocophagus sp., C. tschirchi, Metaphyars sp. under normal conditions and control the pest to the extent of 50%.
1. Both nymphs and adults of thrips (Thrips oryzae) feed on the plant sap from tender leaves.
2. The leaf tips of the affected plants fade and roll up and the thrips remain within the folds.
3. This is a serious pest in uplands of Sikkim andjhum lands ofTripura, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh.
1. Army worm (Spodoptera mauritia) is a sporadic pest on rice and severely occurs in Umraiang valley of Jowai district in Meghalaya, valley land of Manipur and Tripura.
2. Caterpillars feed on leaves and in severe infestation entire seedbeds and fields are destroyed and the fields appear as if it has been grazed by animals/cattle.
3. The larvae feed voraciously in the night and hide in the cracks and crevices of the soil during daytime.
1. Case worm (Nymphula depunctalis) is one of the serious pests in many areas of the NE region.
2. Adults of case worm are 6 mm long with wingspan of 15 mm. Slender green coloured caterpillars cut leaf blades into length of about 1.25 cm out of which they make tubular cases with which they feed and float while moving plant to plant. During heavy damage, leaves are skeletonised and appear whitish in colour.
1. Leafroller or leaf folder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalisi is a common pest on upland and lowland rice.
2. The larva rolls the leaf blade by fastening the edges and feed within by scraping mesophyll or the green matter.
3. Feeding reduces productive leaf area that affects plant growth. High infestation often gives a sickly appearance to the field with white patches.
4. If the infestation continues up to the boot leaf stage then it results in heavy yield losses. The moths are brownish orange with two and one distinct dark wavy lines on the brownish fore and hind wings.
5. Eggs are laid singly on the undersurface of the leaves.
6. The total life cycle varies from 25-40 days. The availability of alternate grass hosts during the off-season helps the pest to thrive well in the region.