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Package of Practices
  • A compendium of state specific and location specific recommended package of practices are provided under this head. You may be interested to see that, thanks to our IP based customisation, that only your state (the state from where you are accessing RKMP) specific information is available.
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04
Aug

Soil of Meghalaya

 

1. Rice can be grown on wide range of soils viz., sandy loam to silty clay loam.

2. pH around 6.0 is the most suitable for good rice production.

04
Aug

Production technology of rice in Meghalaya

1. Rice is the most important cereal crop of North Eastern Hill. It is the staple food of the inhabitants of the region.

2. Presently its average yield is low as compared to that of the country.

3.The increase in productivity of rice will ensure food security of the region.

04
Aug

Farming System IV (modern)

The components of this Farming System IV are as follows:

 Settled cultivation in the valley lands between the two hills, bullock ploughing under rainfed condition, various types of agricultural crops are grown .

 Rearing of livestock like cattle, pig, goat and poultry.

  Horticultural plantation.

 Cultivation of annual and seasonal crops like cereals, pulses, oilseeds and vegetable with improved technology on the terraces on hill slopes made by the Government.

 Plantation crops like rubber.

 Plantation of quick growing leguminous trees and bamboos on the hill slopes.

 Cultivation of annual fodders on the hill slopes.

04
Aug

Farming System III (semi-modern)

Five components are found to have existed in this Farming System III .

  • Settled cultivation in the valley lands between the two hills bullock ploughing under rainfed condition, various types of agricultural crops are grown.
  • Shifting cultivation in the hill slopes. A single crop of rice or maize and mixed crops of rice + maize + cotton + tapioca +ginger are grown.
  • Rearing of livestock like cattle, pig, goat and poultry.
  • Horticultural plantation.
  • Cultivation of annual and seasonal crops like cereals, pulses, oilseeds and vegetable with improved technology on the terraces on hill slopes made by the Government.
04
Aug

Farming System I (Traditional) of Meghalaya

This Farming System I was found to have three components:

  • Settled cultivation in the valley lands between the two hills, bullock ploughing under rainfed condition, various types of agricultural crops are grown .
  • Shifting cultivation in the hill slopes. A single crop of rice or maize and mixed crops of rice + maize + cotton + tapioca +ginger are grown.
  • Rearing of livestock like cattle, pig, goat and poultry.
04
Aug

Farming System 2 (Marginally Modern)

The components of this Farming System are:
  • Settled cultivation in the valley lands between the two hills, bullock ploughing under rainfed condition, various types of agricultural crops are grown.
  • Shifting cultivation in the hill slopes. A single crop of rice or maize and mixed crops of rice + maize + cotton + tapioca +ginger are grown.
  • Rearing oflivestock like cattle, pig, goat and poultry.
  • Growing of horticultural crops like areca nut, banana, orange and pineapple in hill slopes.
04
Aug

Farming systems of Meghalaya

1. Goswami (1996) did an economic appraisal of indigenous hill farming systems (FS) in West Garo hills district of Meghalaya to identify the existing fanning systems and their transition flow to modern system of agriculture.

2. Four types of indigenous farming systems were reported to have existed in West Garo Hill district of Meghalaya such as

a) Traditional Farming system.

B) Marginally modern Farming system.

c) Semi-modern Farming system.

D) Modern Farming system.

04
Aug

Agro-ecological regions of Meghalaya

The agroecosystem has been developed by the people to meet their food, fibre, and other demands for their needs depending on the climate and relief of the land. The Meghalaya state comes under the Warm per-humid agroecoregion. At micro level state agro-eco region has been divided into three sub agroecosystems. 1. Warm per humid thermic: This region comprises the Central Plateau region of the Khasi and Jaintia Hills and represents around 30% of the total geographical area. Warm summer and cold winter belonging to semi-temperate climate characterize the climate. The mean annual rainfall varies from 2400 mm to more than 10,000 mm/annum and precipitation exceeds potential evapotranspiration and dry spell only occurs from November to February/March. 2. Warm per humid Hyperthermic: The per-humid hypothermic sub-eco region consists middle and lower plateau region falling in continuation with the Central Plateau and covers East and West Garo Hills and parts of East and West Khasi Hills and Jaintia Hills. This region covers 15861 sq km, representing 69.9% of the total geographical area of the state. Hot and moist summer and cool winter belonging to sub-tropical climate characterize the agro-climate of this region. The mean annual rainfall varies from 2000 to 3400 mm, and potential evapotranspiration from 1000 to 1300 mm/year. The deficit of water (300-350 mm) occurs in the dry post monsoon period. 3. Warm Humid Hyperthermic: This zone lies in the northern slope facing the Brahmputra valley of Assam. The rainfall decreases as from south to north and varies from 1600-2000 mm/year and dry spell occurs from November to April/May with deficit of water during the period.
04
Aug

Rice yellow dwarf

1. The disease is characterized by general chlorosis, with pronounced stunting and profused tillering. The chlorotic leaves are uniformly pale yellow. The young infected plants usually produce either no panicle at all or a few small panicles with unfilled grains. Plants infected during later growth stages may not develop symptoms before harvest. 2. This disease is caused by phytoplasmas and these are generally Observed in phloem tubes of yellow dwarf infected rice plants. These are pleomorphic bodies measured from 80-800 mm, devoid of cell walls and bound by unit membrane. 3. The disease is transmitted by leafhopper, Nephotettix virescens. The insect can acquire the pathogen by feeding on diseased plant by half an hour and require long incubation period (20 days) to transmit the phytoplasma. 4. The insects remain infected until they die. A combination of low temperature and high humidity favours the leafhopper population resulting in higher disease incidence. The ratoon plants growing from stubble may be diseased and act as inoculum sources for later infections. The yellow dwarf of rice may be reduced by: • Field sanitation • Seed treatment with Carbofuran and subsequent soaking in Carbofuran solution (75% WP) for 36 hours prior to transplanting (by effectively controlling the vector) • Spraying Dimecron (0.03%), Carbofuran (0.04%), Dimethoate (0.025%) and Methyl Dometin (0.025%) Spraying of ch lorotetracycline at 100 ppm
04
Aug

Rice tungro virus

1. The disease occurred in an epidemic form in NE states during 1969 and 1970.This is one of the most damaging diseases. Tungro ischaracterized by stunting ofthe plant and leaf colours range from various shades of yellow to orange, the discolouration and rusty blotchesspreading downwards from the leaftip. 2. The young leaves may show a mottled appearance and slightly twisted whereas older leaves appear rusty coloured. 3. Tungro is the result of concurrent infection by two viruses -the single stranded RNA virus, rice tungro spherical virus (RTSV) and thedouble stranded DNA virus, rice tungro bacilliform band virus (RTBV) Both viruses are transmitted by several leafhopper species, more particularly Nephotettix virescens in semi-persistent manner. 4. The insect can become infective after feeding on diseased plants for 30 minutes and can transmit the virus almost immediately after feeding. 5. The females are more efficient in transmission than the males. Wild rice, rattoning stubble and grassy weeds may serve as source of virus between rice crop. 6. Use of resistant varieties controls the disease.
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