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DAF (DNA Amplification Fingerprinting)

A method of general DNA amplification using a single primer of between 5 and 20 nucleotides in length.

Damage, crop

Measurable reduction in quality and/or quantity of crop produce caused by injury due to pests and/or abiotic factors.

Damaged grains

Those distinctly discolored or damaged by water, insects, heat, or any other means.

Damping off

A disease caused by one or a combination of two or more species of water molds. Evidence of damping-off disease is seen as cottony growths; the hyphae of the parasitic fungi are seen on the seed surface.


Method of raising rice seedlings on banana leaves, polythene, or a cement slab. Seedlings are raised in the same way as in the wetbed method. Because the seeds are sown thickly (3 kg seeds per square meter), seedlings look like a mat or carpet and can be rolled for transplanting when they are 10-14 days old.


The collection of facts of experiments, instruments, and surveys and treatments that are calculated statistically to give measured statistical results.


Facts or information and figures stored for future use.

Davis inoculator

A mechanical device developed by Frank Davis, Mississippi State University, USA, used to dispense insect larvae in artificial inoculation of plants.

Daylength (photoperiod)

Duration of the daylight period including twilight during a given day; the number of hours between sunrise and sunset.

Days to heading

Number of days from seeding to heading.

Dead furrow

A furrow left in the field that is slightly wider than twice the width of a plough bottom, usually occurring at the completion of a field.

Dead heart

Dead rice tiller caused by the attack and griddling of the tiller's base by stem borers.


Rubbish, vegetable matter, dry weeds, etc.


The process of resolving into constituent parts.


1) The stem lying on the ground and tending to rise at the end. 2) Lying flat with the apex ascending.

Deep furrow seeder

The deep-furrow drill puts seed in the moist soil in the bottom of a deep furrow, yet the seed are only covered the normal depth in the bottom of the broad furrow. Deep-furrow planting may be done with either a lister or a disk-type drill.

Deep placement

A method of applying fertilizers in which the fertilizers are placed directly in the reduced zone of the paddy soil.

Deep ploughing

Deep ploughing produces big clods that must be broken down to produce a seedbed. Deep ploughing is slow process.

Deep water ecosystem

About 13 million hectares are under deep water and tidal wetlands rice. Mostly in South Asia. These are the regions where rice grows under rainfed dryland or shallow flooding conditions for 1-3 months and is then subjected to flooding with water depth of more than 50 cm for a month or longer. These areas are found in the river basins of Ganges and Brahmaputra in India and Bangladesh, the Irrawaddy in Myanamar, the Meanamar, the Mekong Delta of Vietnam and Cambodia and the Chao Pharaya in Thailand. When water levels are over 100 cm, the crop is known as floating rice, while Tidal Wetlands occur where water levels are fluctuating and are influenced by tide such as in coastal belts.

Deep water rice

A long-duration rice that grows under rainfed, non-flooded conditions for 1-3 months, then is subject to flooding with water depths more than 50 cm for a month or longer. Plants elongate as the flood rises, above the water, in normal flood conditions, but may be submerged in deep flash floods. Maximum water depth varies greatly.

Deep water rice areas

Low-lying lands on the river deltas of south and southeast asia where water accumulates during the rainy season in depths varying from 50 cm to more than 3 m.


Any inadequacy or shortage of substances essential to growth and development of plants.


The separation of ripened leaves from a branch or stem.


Any chewing insect that feeds on the leaves of plant, or chemical that removes foliage.

Degree of milling

Percent efficiency of bran removal from brown rice during milling.

Degrees of freedom

1) The number of independent comparisons that can be made in a set of data. 2) The maximum number of quantities whose values are free to vary before the remainder of the quantities are determined.

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