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A common name for the panicle of rice.

Ear-to-row selection

A method in which selection is carried out on progenies derived from individual ears.


generation materials - Rice plants derived from hybridization that are in early filial generations such as f2 and f3.

Early maturing variety

A variety that matures early; variety that matures at least 10 days earlier than common types. In rice, varieties that mature in 100 days are called very early.

Early vegetative stage

Immediately after transplanting or rice seedlings, sufficient water should be provided to facilitate the tiller production. Following the early rooting stage, a shallow water depth facilitates tiller production and promotes firm root anchorage in the soil. Excessive water at this stage seriously hampers firm root anchorage tiller production. Leaf blades and leaf sheaths of the submerged plants become weak, turn light green and break easily. The water level after transplanting should be 3 cm initially and it can be increased up to 5-10 cm with the growth of the crop.

Early yield testing

Testing of breeding lines at early filial generations which may have some amount of segregation.

Economic injury or threshold level

The pest population density at which the loss caused by the pest is greater than the cost of controlling the pest. The pest density at which artificial control measures are economically justified.

Economic threshold of weed control

The weed population density at which the loss caused by the weeds is greater than the cost of controlling the weeds.


A population within a species that has developed distinct physiological characteristics (e.g., herbicide resistance) in response to a specific environment which persist even if individuals are moved to a different environment.


A parasite feeding on the host from the exterior.

Ectotrophic mycorrhiza/Ectomycorrhiza

A mycorrhizal association in which the fungal hyphae form a compact mantle on the surface of the roots. Mycelial strands extend inward between cortical cells and outward from the mantle to the surrounding soil.


Influenced by the soil rather than by climate.

Edaphic factors

Soil conditions such as alkalinity, extreme acidity, iron toxicity, salinity, and zinc deficiency, which adversely affect plant growth.


The science that deals with the influence of soils on living things, particularly plants, including people's use of land for plant growth.


The influence of an external factor on the plant, e.g., drought, fertilizer, flooding. In statistics, that which is measured and analyzed as in treatment effect.

Effective Accumulated Temperature (EAT)

The total effective temperature in °C received by the plant in a certain growth period (stage). It is used to predict flowering. EAT = mean daily temp °C - temp higher than 27 °C - temp of the lower limit (12 °C).

Effective precipitation

That portion of total precipitation that becomes available for plant growth.

Effective rainfall

That portion of rainfall that can be stored within the rooting depth of the crop and on the paddy surface and can be subsequently utilized by the plants.


1) In insects, the reproductive body in which the embryo develops and from which the nymph or larva hatches. 2) In plants, the female ovum, pertaining to reproductive cells.

Egg mass

A group of eggs deposited by the female insect which are adjacent to each other (as in rice bug) or overlapping (as in the yellow stem borer) as opposed to eggs laid singly.

Egg plug

A gelatinous fluid which the rice weevil places over the egg, located in the egg cavity in the plant.

Electrical conductivity

A measure of the amount of salts in a solution expressed as decisiemen per meter (ds/m).


Method used to separate protein or nucleic acid molecules in an electric field extending across a physical medium such as agarose gel or polyacrylamide.


Introduction of DNA or RNA into plant cells or protoplasts by the disruption of the cell membrane through exposure to an intense electric field.


Molecules produced by the host (or pathogen) that induce a response from the pathogen (or host).

Elisa (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay)

A serological test in which one antibody carried within an enzyme releases a colored compound.

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