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F layer

A soil layer of partially decomposed litter with portions of plant structures still recognizable. Occurs below the I layer (o11 horizon) on the forest floor in forest soils.


A test of statistical significance consisting of the ratio of two independent variances of normally distributed variables.


Abbreviation for the first filial generation, usually the hybrid between two homozygous types.

F1 hybrid

Denotes the first generation offspring from the mating of two parents.


The second filial generation obtained by self-fertilization of F1 individuals.

F2 population

Population of individuals present in the F2 generation of a cross.

F2 ratio

The segregation pattern of a character or characters in F2 generation.

F2 seed

The second generation progeny from the mating of two parents.


Progeny obtained by self-fertilizing F2 individuals.


Where two or more treatments of an experiment produce different interactions.

Factorial experiment

An experiment where treatments are combinations of two or more factors. The treatments can be either complete factorial combinations or incomplete factorial combinations.

Facultative saprophyte

An organism living on another living organism during part of its life cycle or living on the dead tissues of its host.


Naturally flooded plains in nigeria where rice grows.

Fahrenheit (oF)

A temperature scale in which the freezing point of water is taken as 32 °F and the boiling point of water as 212 °F (or 100 °C) under standard atmospheric pressure.

Falling rate period (drying rate declines over time)

As time passes, it takes more time for internal moisture to appear at the surface, and evaporation of water is no longer

constant in time. As a result, drying rate will decline, and some of the heat from the drying air will heat up the grain. For paddy grain, the falling-rate period typically

occurs at around 18% grain moisture content.


Land that is ordinarily used for crops but allowed to lie idle between crops.

False smut

A disease caused by Ustilaginoidea virens. The fungus transforms individual grains of the panicle into greenish spore balls that have a velvety appearance. The spore balls are small at first and enclose the floral parts. They are covered with a membrane which bursts as a result of further growth and the color of the ball becomes orange and later yellowish green or greenish black. (also known as grain smut)

Farming system

1) The manner in which a particular set of farm resources is assembled within its environment, by means of technology, for the production of primary agricultural products.
2) A collection of distinct functional units, where crops, livestock, and marketing activities interact because of the joint inputs received from the environment and management personnel.
3) A unique and reasonably stable arrangement of farming enterprises that a household manages according to well-defined practices in response to the physical, biological, and socioeconomic environment and resources. These factors combine to influence output and production methods.

Feeding lesion

A damaged area on a plant part resulting from the feeding of an insect.

Female flower

A flower with functional ovary but no stamens.

Female parent

The parent which contributes its egg in a cross. The plant with the ovary, style, and stigma that may produce fruits or seeds.


Any of the chemical reactions induced by living or nonliving agents that split complex organic compounds into relatively simple substances, e.g., the anaerobic conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast.


A soil-forming process resulting in acidification and clay destruction due to alternating reduction and oxidation in practically flooded soils.


A soil-forming process resulting in acidification and clay destruction due to alternating reduction and oxidation in practically flooded soils.


1) Land that has enough nutrients to support abundant plant growth. 2) Plants that are reproductive and can produce fruits, seeds, spores or pollen grains.

Fertility (Genetics)

The ability to produce viable offspring.

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