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An abnormal plant growth, swelling or tumor induced by another organism such as an insect.

Gall midge

An insect pest (Orseolia oryzae) that causes the youngest leaf or the shoot in a tiller to appear as light-colored tubular gall resembling an onion leaf. Tillers with gall midge do not produce panicles. 


A mature reproductive male or female germ cell (sperm or egg) specialized for fertilization.   

Gametic (tissue or generation)

Having n number of chromosomes (haploid) in contrast to zygotic tissue with 2n (diploid).


Organic or inorganic chemicals used for killing the functional sexual parts (pollen, ovule) of the plant. These may be selective for male or female parts.


In this system, the sterility/fertility reaction is imparted to the pollen by the genetic constitution of the pollen itself and is controlled by a single gene which may have large numbers of allelic forms.

Gap filling

The replacement of seedlings which were dead or wither.

Gel consistency

Degree of rice gel firmness measured as the length of cold milled rice gelatinized in 2 ml of dilute potassium hydroxide in a 13 x 100 mm test tube, placed horizontally for 30 minutes or 1 hour. Gel consistency may be classified as hard (27 to 40 mm), medium (41 to 60 mm), or soft (61 to 100 mm). It is correlated with hardness of cooked rice.

Gel electrophoresis

A technique where nucleic acids or proteins are separated according to size and charge by subjecting them to an electric current in a suitable gel and buffer system.

Gelatinization temperature

Gelatinization temperature or the birefringence end points temperature (BEPT) is the temperature at which the rice absorbs water and starch granules swell irreversibly in hot water with a simultaneous loss of crystallinity. The gelatinization temperature ranges from 55 o to 79 o C. The digestibility of the milled rice starch, as indicated by the degree of spreading and clearing, is inversely related to gelatinization temperature.

Gender analysis

The systematic effort to document and understand the roles of women and men within a given context.

Gender blindness

The inability to perceive that different gender roles and responsibilities are held by men and women, leading to different effects on men and women of development policies, programs, and projects.

Gender neutral

Having equal impact on both men and women, giving them equal access to resources and benefits of a development initiative.

Gender roles

Learned behaviours that condition activities, tasks, and responsibilities viewed within a given society as "masculine" or "feminine."


1) A functional hereditary unit that occupies a fixed location in a chromosome, has a specific influence on the phenotype (usually) through encoding a single polypeptide
chain or molecule), and is capable of mutation to various allelic forms.
2) DNA segment that performs a specific function and is a unit of inheritance.

Gene action

The expression of genes by their control on the specificity and rate of biosynthetic processes or on the regulated action of other genes.

Gene bank

An institution that serves as a center of exchange and preservation for a large number of varieties.

Gene conversion

The asymmetrical segregation of genes during replication that leads to an apparent conversion of one gene into another.

Gene deployment

A system of assigning specific resistance genes to a specific geographic area to control pests.

Gene dosage

The number of times that a particular gene occurs in the nucleus of a cell.

Gene expression

The process by which the polypeptide encoded by a gene is synthesized at the appropriate time, place, and rate. When a gene is "decoded" by the cell and a new protein is produced, the gene is said to be "expressed" by the plant.

Gene frequency

The proportion in which alternative alleles of a gene occur in a population.

Gene interaction

Modification of a gene action by a nonallelic gene or genes.

Gene library

A clone library which contains a large number of representative nucleotide sequences from all sections of the DNA of a given genome; a random collection of DNA fragments from a single organism, linked to vectors, and cloned in a suitable host.

Gene locus

A place or a position occupied by a gene on a chromosome.

Gene mapping (genome mapping)

The assigning/locating of a specific gene to particular region of a chromosome; the determination of the sequence of specific genes and their relative distances from each other on a given chromosome.

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